Spencer & Gillen

A journey through Aboriginal Australia

Horn Expedition General Field Notes. Gesture Language. Trip to Ayres (sic) Rock and Mt Olga. Lake Amadeus 1894.

Physical Description

Notebook. Black, hard covered. Label adhered to front cover with handwritten annotation in black ink. Entries in pencil. Spine deteriorating.

Primary Comments

Field diary of Horn Expedition to Central Australia. Some rough notes written in this book in the field are transcribed into the Diary headed: "W.B.Spencer, Horn Expedition to Central Australia, 1894, Diary." Pressed flower and piece of child's hair enclosed.


Cover Page

"HORN EXPEDITION: General Field Notes. Gesture Language. Trip to Ayres Rock and Mt Olga. Lake Amadeus.1894"


1. Camp 3. Camels unloaded, standing against trees

2. Camp. 4. Camels loading (spoilt slide opened while down) " Camels

7. " Buggy harnessing.

" Buggy
+ group.

9. Dalhousie around spring near to.

10. " " " distant.

11. ? wound off without taking

12. Camp 6. Hughes waterhole.

13. " " Camels loaded.

14. “ Camel head yawning

15. “ Group Horn, Stirling, Tate, Belt.

16. “ Water camel.

17. " Pack camels starting.

18. Blood Creek store. 11. a.m.

Large Camera. ( Imperial dry)
2) Group on Adruniga Crk. May 12-94.
9. a.m.


19. (May 12. Tate & Horn - Bush
20. (Group with tree.
21. (Camel train.
22. Camel with bladder from mouth
23 Frog in burrow
24. Boggy flats. May 14.
25. Camels at Goyder R. spring.
26. Exposed when shutter went down.
27. Camels at Goyder. R. spring.

Large Camera. (With panorthoscopic imperial
3 Cliff by Goyder )
4. Mt. Townsend )
5 ) Mt. Townsend. x8. 50 secs. f 44.
6 ) Telephotographic.
. 7. Mt. Daniell - Terraces on range f64 2.secs. .
8. Section on cliff by Goyder f64. 3.secs.
5..p.m..[in margin]
9. Distant view of Finke Valley with Cunningham.
10. Gap. + Crown Pt. to W. & one tree hill to E.
f64. 3secs. 8 a.m.
Crown Point. X8 Tele. f64. l 10".

28. Distant view of Finke Valley f16. 8 am. Distant.


[text on page accompanied by large drawing of male with face & body painting]

In some yellow ochre band passed down front arm instead of over shoulder Yellow ochre bands across forehead & in some cases gypsum
Yellow ochre (or gypsum) [body stripe]
White gypsum - [white spots on body]
White gypsum - [ “ “ “ “]
White gypsum [right arm bands]
Yellow ochre [ “ “ “ ]
White gypsum [ “ “ “ ]
Tatoo [tattoo] scar over deltoid sometimes vertical - sometimes tr. [transverse]
Scar mans band arms
Chest & abdomen none dorsal

5. 9⅝ ins.

Men [? smear] of ten.

5-5 9/40

[text below accompanied by diagrams]

Left =

1. Glengǎduck 5.75/8 . 2. Arramantika 5.5.. 3. Calijiga 5.7.


Occasional charcoal on forehead.

Jewish cast. Hair pushed back with

band of string of possum hair & tied up in

sort of Chignon

Fig leaves Nanny goats tails = large & small
tassel of possum fur strings. Rats tails.

Armlet of human hair.

Arms mulga spear blade. Shaft in 1 or 2 pieces.
Prob. some acacia. (2 pieces usually).
Shield soft wood.
Throwing stick = mulga. Porcupine grass resin
Boomerang - slightly curved not for returning.
1 man bunch of feathers in hair. In others
kangaroo bone.
Old lubra with hair in coils gypsum band
of same across bridge of nose & cheeks & forehead.

Finding munyeroo seed. Eating? amaryllis
bulbs raw or partly cooked. Irri-ākŭra.
Circumcised & sub incised.


May 18. Crown Point.

29. Lubras at Crown Point. (Ross’ Station)
30 2) On one plate probably ~ 10ft.
31 3)
32. Woman & dogs & lubra in Blacks camp. 7ft.
33 Man grinding munyeroo 7.ft.
34 . Man asleep. 5 yds.
35) Front & back man)
36) winding string ) 5 yds.
37. Lubra in mourning [?] 5 yds.
38. men & group munyeroo grinding 7 yds.
40) Coroboree. [corroboree]
42. Two blacks eating munyeroo & sleeping. 7 yds.
44. Group of lubras.
45. Back of Ross' Station. Crown Point.

Large Camera

1 a
iso 2 a Corroboree. Inst. 1/45 sec.

Imp 11 Crown Point
3 a Spotted black. 1. Sec.
4 a. 3 Blacks full face & profile. f32. 1½sec.
5 a

Large Camera.
May 22. Nr. Finke (Idracowra at night) [?]
iso 7a Camel train leaving camp ISO. 8-30. a.m.
6a Camp asleep. 1/20 sec.


This one will have sky slightly fogged
46. moon photo, no good.

May 22
47. Lunch camp by waterhole. Camel drinking.
48. " " 10. yds.

May 23.
50.) Chamber Pillar

Large Camera. May 22.

8a. Chamber Pillar fr. E.
9a. Chamber Pillar from N. close to.
10.a. " “ upper part.
11.a.. " “ & Castle Mt. from. S.
12.a. " “ & Casuarina from .E.

May. 25.
53. View from camp 18. Mt. Sants To. N.E.
54 " " " Johnston Range to N.W.
55. Stirling + Tom.
56. " " + Winecke.

May 27.
57. Two Picaninnies of Larapinta tribe.
last One.

May 27. Large Camera.

lb.. Man of Larapinta with 2 picanninies
2b. Man of Larapinta with necklet of dead man's hair
white possum & hair headdress & waistband.
3b. Man of Andagoriña tribe with Emu chignon
& mo-poke tuft.


E .black ei-yerara;
S. black urlewa or urlewarra
Lurua-arunda = Finke
Luricha = Henley Tempe Downs
Glen Helen
Blacks from N----- Stat. to Oodnadatta speak same language

Big Bosses & Little Bosses .

Big boss gives work along from Oodnadatta
to Charlotte Waters. Smaller bosses in
There is some sort of tribal constitution.
Cicatrices across chest from Charlotte to
Alice. Vary in length.
Short at Charlotte waters.
Longer at Crown Point. Longer still at
Alice Springs right round to back
Idracowra mark down shoulder.

Diff. 'tribes' distinguished by diff. marks.

Oodnadatta blacks.
Charlotte Waters & Ordunba Crown Point. Arŭnda
Harry in speaking of his people he being
a boss calls them ‘undaka’ = mine
the possessive .
Aldolinya - Alice
Tribal names not called after animals but
individuals often are as possum-kangaroo
-lizard. Man
Called ‘ lizard’ for


example may eat lizard & so on.
Harry's tribe for example do not eat
[hand written note to say following 4 words crossed out in diary]
but all other birds or crane or heron. Reason
not clear

Men all keep away from women when child
born. But no ceremony. Keep away about 5
days after birth. Soon as. evidently
pregnant lubra keeps away.
Grandfather tells woman to come back
after about 5 days or another old man.
name not given till about 5 or 6.
Grandfather give name. Husband's
father is grandfather.
Kill both boys & girls - eat them. Woman
kills them at birth with waddy.
No adoption.



Circumcision - just before puberty -hairs beginning
Father tells uncle or elder brother [crossed out & latter tells boy ]
One done at a time or
more if ready but don’t wait.
If all tribe not summoned any section not
summoned will object.
'Cousin' of father of boy does cutting.
= Relative does cutting [ Father of cutter
holds him ]Cousin apparently = eagle [? ] to
cousin. Boy laid on back of black
fellow transversely. May be
several black fellows on top of one
another supporting man on whom boy is
laid. Boy that has been cut before
holds skin. (Boy recently circumcised.)
Father's cousin (Boy's uncle.) cuts skin.
Any stone used for cutting.
Skin buried when cut off. Stone buried
with foreskin.
Boy not told. Children not told.
4 nights corroboree beforehand. Cut
when suitable day or night. Harry's people


used to cut just before sunrise - but
times mixed up now. Boy watched
not allowed to run away - but kept a
profound secret.
After cutting. Boy sent away till all right
food taken into scrub. Stop away 2
weeks. No dressing except wood
ashes applied.
Promiscuous interchange of lubras after
ceremony. May be 2,3 or more to
1 lubra up to 12 or 15. Chief
obliges visitor without lubra & compliment returned
when chief goes to another camp.
Lubras not allowed to see operation or
boy till latter quite well.
After circumcision no special lubra allowed
till after subincision wh. takes when mature
Has connection [intercourse] without knowledge of old men
if boy found having kill him. If
lubra (Illicit correction) tells husband - latter


kills boy but not punish lubra but if not tell husband &
latter finds it out gives her two good
thrashings & kills boy also.

No corobboree [corroboree] & no
summoning of others n- - ls - only local
tribe present. No promiscuous intercourse.
Another - near relative –cousin - operates who has not
held skin or cut at circumcision.
Boy laid on one man & another man
on top of boy & holds glans penis back operator sits between
boys legs.
Half (top half) cut first
if not far enough cut again. Boy
himself asks if not cut enough. Nothing
put in to keep wound open. Nothing
put down urethra when cut.
Boy may run away but catch him after
longer or shorter time. Dont tell boy
but boy may hear.


Before circumcision cut on
chest. At first two cuts then when
these well 4 more. Harry's tribe not
on deltoid. GirIs cut at same
age. Lubra cuts girls. Same as boys,
Lubra shorter cuts than men.
No corobboree at cutting. Ask to be cut.
Anyone does cutting. Voluntary but
desired by all. Tribes differently cut.

Menstruation . Lubra at menstruation
goes with Lubras only. 4 days any suffering
all right (often allright) But eats
same as others not meat but seed.
Meat make them worse. If no seed
eat yam.

Strict rules of marriage.
Wives -1 to 6
No polyandry. At Anna Crk.
apparently polyandry.
When man goes away may hand
over his lubra to another man who
gives her back on return of own.
If child born lubra assign parent .


when young wife given no connection till after
No artificial opening of vagina
Lubra stops away after birth 5 days
no connection for another 5 days.
Umbilical cord cut with stone &.
greased. (‘iguana’ grease) Man's
mother cuts cord. After-birth buried.

Disease. Think some other black fellow
made his bad. Knows who by
dreams. Keeps away from him but
another fellow talks to him. Latter
tries to make him well by greasing him.
If dies causee is sometimes killed by friend
or friends of deceased.

No recognized medicine - only grease them
if close up dead.

If snake bite ligature above injury & put
limb near fire. - Some fellows suck bite.
Very seldom bite. 'Doctor' sucks them.


One Doctor Certain doctors. One special
one at Macumba. Apparently recognized
as a Medicine man early in life. Seems
to be some peculiarity in a man which they
recognize as making one a doctor.

Death. Man buried. Weeping. Uncle
digs hole. Watch during day & then leave
him. Bring 1 yam stick with him
"No tucker that one dead - finished" which
has belonged to him . no idea of future life.
Yam stick with woman also.

Black fellows gypsum for mourning for
1 weeks. Hair & face
May put more on later again if think
about it.


[ 2 illustrations of basket shaped objects accompany text on page 18]

Red bean of Erithrina

Made of Erithryna Vespibbi [? Erythrina vespertilio?]

[drawing 1 of ? basket with handle]

2ft. 6 ins. long. 10ins- around.
8 ins. Deep.

Rudja Made of black fellow hair.
For general carriage

Turna. [drawing of small ? basket] Small
14 ins. long

for munyeroo. .

Blacks at Tempe Downs used Pitchuri for
poisoning emu. Put stem & leaf in ashes
& then mix with water & put this in vessel
one or two 'swallows' stupify emu. Dont use
this to chew as Blacks in Q. [? Queensland] do. Use
Nicotiana - for Pitchuri here.

Larapinta. Henbury. Hermansburg. Glen Helen
Andagoriña Tempe Downs. Erldunda

Erinophylla. macdonelli - low circular
growing shrub - greyish green. purple flower
Grevillea striata - Silky oaks.


[handwritten notations accompany words on page]

Bullroara = irrŭla

= slowly, undǎ wī idna

fish = undaweedna = bony bream.

“cat fish” ? = lunga - ŭlbera No bone (cat fish)

cray fish = īlldja – ăn - mā

red head band īllăbă - lăra (Black man’s Hair)

White head band = iīllgandja. (of possum)

wallaby ) = munga – oura
rat ) _ ( Run into one in pronunciation)

“possum” with white hair other possum = munjoura

For summoning corroboree get stick of gum [?]
(box) hollow with fire stick & blow through.

Give me drink - closed hand move up &
down & open out in front of & extended from shoulder.
Give me food - hand half open move up &
down & open out.
Put hand to mouth, blow & stretch
out hand = give me fire stick.
Pretend first to pick up fire stick.
Pitchuri. [?] pretend to put leaf in mouth &
stretch out hand.


[2 illustrations of hand gestures accompany text on page 20]

I dont know - move clenched hand up & down.
What do you mean - raise clenched hand & open up so
that at end palm uppermost.
What got there - move hand up & extend first
finger, ,put slightly forward & lower hand sharply& quickly bend
finger pointing forwards slightly at same
time. Extend finger

If get big guana (Brenti sounds like = parents)
lift hand - shake sideways open once
or twice & point to ground.

If got pitchuri - put finger toward mouth
as if eating.

[1: drawing of gesture] put hand like this
up & down as
if pulling tail
= I've got wallaby or

Make noise with mouth & flutter hand
= little bird

[2: drawing of gesture] Shake hand up & down like
this = I've got Emu.


Beckoned with hand

Sit down – palm half clenched moved in
semi circle & then down with back of
hand downwards.

Me walk behind. - point to your shoulder
& then forwards. means me walk behind.

I'm going to fight you spit in palm of
hand & pretend to throw boomerang.

Throw boomerang & Cut each other
alternately. Then growl then if
want to fight further hit each other
over head alternately. The spitting
is to show want to fight. Hold
knife in teeth while spitting.

Eat Chara - Call it Ăndă weednă

Beckon to anyone to come indicate
number up to
if one one finger up & beckon
if 2 two fingers. . 3. 3 fingers.
If 4.. 4 fingers. . 5. 5 fingers = whole hand.


[illustration of bent finger] Bent finger = boomerang in baiter.

Hunting Emu

1 Black 2 Blacks
sees emu -dog
hand half closed 2 comes up
in front of face
move 2 fingers up & down
both walk.

closed fist shake up & down point 1st finger
towards emu.
to tell him emu eating open mouth &
move hand backwards & forwards towards it as
if putting food in mouth.
If Emu looking up bend head down &
also outstretched hand towards black
as sign to lie low.
If emu run with outstretched arm shake
hand up & down & point in direction.
Track. & when Emu walks instead of shaking
hand rapidly wave it up & down
slowly with outstetched 1st finger. to say
dog has caught Emu. ---
After caught emu by dog.


To signal big dog shake hand from
side to side with 1st finger up then open
& close fingers alternately with back of
hand uppermost & drawing it backwards & forwards
all the time.

Eagle hawk - undalja - head dress

Emu chignon = mēmba

Wallaby bones = Endjāla like Endjaila = ai & ā

black feller
hair to fasten on with = úlāra

Moe poke head dress - kðrk - kok.

white possum - Ūndŭda.

kangaroo bone same as wallaby.

necklace - dead man's hair. green & red ochre.

put on want to fight & kill man dead.

waist band hair.


[3 illustrations on p.24, 2 botanical, 1 of fish]
May 30.
Didiscus glossifolius - Violet white composite

Bassia birchi [1 drawing ] Bassia with spines
6 spines 5 large
1 small
Rhagodia nutaus
red berries.

All downy

Acacia pyrifolia [?]
[2nd drawing] Flower in
Axil of leaf
E. oleoca mallee
Like Gum
Samolus repens By side of
waterhole at gully. Police Camp.
Hadva [?]

June 2.
In Walker Gorge.
faint Gold spots
-brown spots
dark central patches

darker bands
run at upper.
& lower ends into grey
[Drawing of fish, labelled with colours of parts] brown of general body
lighter silvery bands left
between darker.

If viewed dorsally
seem to be symmetrical & can
be distinguished almost
running up to dorsal line
on each side

Silvery Gold brown Vent brown
10 darker narrow
Body yellow brown shading
into darker brown above & silver below.


[4 illustrations ? fish ? frogs on page 25]

Blacks when going to do anything serious as stick up a
station put stripes of human blood on spears
Use astide urine as antidote for strichnine.[strychnine]

Orthis laevicuris in silurian as of ilpilla Gorge
orthoceras & check pieces of trilobite
Xerotis rush like plant with white spikes
Amongst She oaks on Walker.
Smaller fish in Walker Gorge with very transparent body &
groin.[?] bladder much swollen & with short diverticulum leading
down towards vent.

Hyla sp. Police Camp Police Camp.
In smaller bottle.
Tympanum clear
[Illustration - 1,- ? frog]
darker Iine. In soil of Police
Camp Creek.

[illustration - 2,? fish, ? frog]
Yellow brown
body with
darker mottlings.

[ illustrations- 3 & 4, ? frogs]
x I¾
rugose surface
\.. with orange red
on rugosities &
darker brown
round base.


June 3

E.setorus On Hill

Frog in sand. Swollen out with water.


Bulb of Cyperus - decoction of used for venereal
diseases. Internally.

Small black ants with galleries running for
many yards between porcupine bushes. Often
forming matted neckwork on stems & great masses of resin at roots which serve as nest with eggs could only find one kind of ant & eggs.


[4 or 5 illustrations accompany text on page 25]
[1 full length drawing in L margin ? fish ? lizard]
In young short
[2 ] forms behind vent
tail is pink coloured.
Spots continue
with row on
front part
more distinct
than old forms.

[3 ] Black

[4] Mid. Dorsal

Lat. line runs
[5 ] into speckles. Short
distance behind hind legs.
general body colour of larger
(adult?) from greenish grey with
tinge of faint yellow on
ventral & tail slightly more


Small camera roll.2.

2 )Police [station] camp. 1 spoilt.
4) Illara waterhole.
6) Boy c.... c..... at Tempe Downs

Large Camera June. 3/94
full face ( George
into half plates profile ( Gill
9b Man Arundigoriña 5/10½ ( Range
lOb “ “ ( W. of
4b Group of sand hill blacks. S.of Levi. Mt.Connor
5b Lubra & picaninnies. group ( Sand Hill
(Tempe Downs

6b young lubra full face ) Tempe Downs
7b young lubra profile )
8b old lubra side face - Erldunda.
11b Thornton & dogs
12b circumcision. group.
lc circumcision group.
2c spoilt - exposed.
3c subincision - group.
4c subincision - single one
5c Walker Gorge – Panorthic smallest to top. on & off.
6c " " (For Tate) " " "


Ventral surface all
pinkish while same as
outlined parts dorsally.
Rest very dark soft
grey median
broad line of
darker-pink white down
back. Preaxial surface of ant & post limbs
soft band of light grey merging with pinkish
white. Light bands with white spots in
them. Latter on legs head & more indistinctly
general body surface dorsally. Swollen & whitish
end of tail.

Camp 25. June 5/94

reddish brown body.
[3] dark brown irreg [irregular] stripes.

[4] Ventral
silvery to
that flesh


I see white man - arm extended
from elbow open hand palm upwards.
move slightly up & down on wrist & move
fingers open & half closed move.

I see black fellers - hand lifted to
level of ear fore finger extended &
moved in circle round ear & then
point in direction.

I see lubra
hand vertical
& fingers as in fig.
move slightly up &
down & shifting floating
movement on elbows.

[ a. hand gesture with hand written label] ‘forefinger more bent than this’

Sugar ants. Yarrumba. (Tempe Downs)


I see picaninny
[illustration hand gesture ]

Similar rotation on elbow.

Large Camera.
June II. Reedy Crk.

(1) 13 W.H. 20 secs. 44 Panorthic Sunset in shade
(2) 14 W.H. 1½ 64 “ Screen " “
(3) 15 W.H. 10 secs. 64 “ Sunset in shade.
(4) 16 W.H. 5 ½ 64 “ Screen just after sunset.

Small. June 12 Reedy Crk. [Creek]
8) water hole

10 ) Lake Amadeus Some of these torn.
12) Ayers Rock.

Changed to new ones.
14) Grass trees.
15 )


Renny’s Creek

Cheilanthes vellea
E. tonerinatis
Pisidium (? Queenslandicum)

In Harry's man may ask to be made doctor when latter makes cuts in his thigh through which
medical aflatus [?wind] is supposed to enter
old doctor then initiates novice into his crafts.

Small Camera (2nd Roll. 3rd Change)
I )
3) Gorge on Red Stanley Crk. [Creek]

6) Tate Camp 4.1.
7) Tate In camp in N. Macdonell gully.

11) Finke Gorge


Blacks of Macumba Dalhousie Chad. W.
Crown Pt. Horn Shoe Bend. Idracowra
Henley. Mt.Burrell. Mission Stat.
= Arunda or Lurina-Arunda. dift. [?difficult]
to find out diff. [? difference] Between them.

S. blacks speak of any blacks in N. as

N. Blacks ditto of S. Blacks as
Urlĕwagga or Urlĕwa.

W = Andiguriña E. = eerrera or
Erldunda. Tempe Downs. Erinya (W. of Charl.)
Gills R. Ayers Rock. Marinna [?Marianna] Bluff
Luriche (or Looritchǎ) or
speaking diff. lang. from Luru-
Arunda at Glen Helen diff. Lang.
Alice Springs
Luru Arunda only quicker.



[labels :-]

General back colour rusty red brown

Darker brown
Darker brown band
White spots
Darker brown
Sharp line

[2] Ridge & Ear


Sharp line
White below


scarlet cress


Scarlet flower prostrate
on ground spreading for few inches
belongs to Cruciferae short racemes
Duboisia:- Pitchuri Coleaceae [?Solanaceae ] flowers
something like Myoporinae.

June 13

1-10 Left camp S.S.W. along Sandy flat.
1-30. Porcupine sandhills Mulga & other bushes
Salicina Eremophylla

2.p.m. Passed E end low sandstone ridge
covered with sand.
Desert oaks . Sand hills flats between.
3.p.m. Saw smoke to N. W.
3.15. Crossed low sandstone ridge striking,
E & W.
3-50. Crossed King's Crk. (Gums) passed E
end of low mulga covered Sandstone
Ranges. Striking, W.N.W. dip 10ºS
4-15. Crossed King's Crk. again.
4-45. Passed end of Crk.
5-40. Camp on - hard clay pans.
6. p.m. barometer 28.37. Therm. 66º



Started 7-50 on grassy flats between sand
hills. 8.am. Spinifex sandhills with
gum (young leaves)
acacias. mulgas. desert oaks.
9.15. Passed E. end of low ranges bearing
to E. (10.20.) passed within
[305?] mile of low stony ridges outcrops.
11-10. Left isolated high hill to W. 4 miles away.
Desert oaks Grevilleas Poplars.
[?] Codonocarpus

1-5. Passed E. end Winnall's Ridge.
escarpment to N & at very east end to. S.
also. Strike E & W. 10 minutes after
passing E end outcrops ironstone & quartzite
travelled S. west for ¼ hr. Then stuck [?struck] S &
reached Kamaran's Well - an old
wound spring: broken. down.
Timber She Oak Cassia &
‘Ti –Tree’. 4 duck carries dingo [?? 4 dead carrion dingos]
dinner. Horn except one or two
could not touch it.

4.p.m. startup sandhills increased in
height, she oaks. 4-30. Gums as]


before Pitchuri. Santalum. Errinophylla. [? Eremophila]
Goodurin [? Goodwin]. (Euc. gamophylla. Euc.
pyriforum. before this.)
Reached Lake Amadeus 6.p.m. Crossed
in twilight. Very little bogging. Little
over half mile when crossed. 20
miles to E. end. broadens out to W.
& becomes 10 miles. (at 6 miles to east of

6.15. Camped. 200 yards S. of Lake
Tied horses up for night.
Emu. Kangaroo & smaller marsupials tracks
very plentiful. Amadeus = Purntoo
Kamaran's Well = Urntapata.
Indian ant nests very plentiful. some
? standing up I ft. above ground. Sands
having evidently blown away. Triodia
on & around the dead. Galleries
plentiful. Some of 'spinifex' tussocks
4 yds. diameter.


Country all day sandhills. Wire grass
porcupine & certain amount of spinifex.
Mulga very abundant & certain amount of
another acacia with some blue grey foliage.
& branches growing out more horizontally.
Comparatively little A. salicina. Large
quantity of She oaks. Young forms
with pendant foliage .


Well (Kamaran's 14ft. to bottom.
in flat amongst sand hills.
Later on before reaching Amadeus passed
two more flats with travertine around them. Gum (sp?) has silver
grey very shiny trunks with yellow
brown thin papery bark which peels off
in small patches raggedly patches
perhaps 4-6 ins. long by 1-2 or 3 ins. broad.
Young leaves colour & much similar
to E. gamophylla but not closely
united together across stem & old


leaves distant & pointed. Umbrella

[illustration 1.]
shaped tips green-grey
up to 80ft. high often
50-60. Butt yard thick.

[illustration 2. ]
Ant hills with Grevillea & mulga
leaves arranged concentrically around
this may be 2ft. across mound.
Trap door spider.
E. tesselaris.
(E. rostrata-along King Creek)
Very few birds. Small one running
along ground. Run into porcupine.
Very few lizards.
Plenty of Kangaroo 1st day out of Reedy

June 15. Started 7-10 a.m. Distant view of
Mt. Olga & Ayers Rock. bearings from camp
E. end Winnalls ridge 24º to W. end 11 [?]. 30”
to Ayres rock 201’ 30" to Olga 227’ 30”


[handwritten note in margin – ‘Old Mud Birdnest in Mallee country [?] out of this 4 eggs in April.’]

Desert Oaks. gamophylla - Acacia
pitchuri. Eucalypt of mallee nature ?sh.
7-30 crossed arm of Amadeus
9.a.m. Kurtĭtīna or Coulthard well.
Old mound [? wound] spring in ........ [? impure]
Travertine (Travertine & silicum scinter)
depth of well 10ft. with hole at
side behind this running under rock about
12ft. to surface of water in muddy sand.
Left. 9-18. On sandy flats with
Travertine on surface.
Grevillea & mulga She oaks
scarce. E. longifolia & Ptylotis
incamis. exaltatus & latifolius
Templetonia (Broom)
Minahs – [P.. S... ] parrots. wedgebill . Chestnut
sand finches. 2 hawks - 2 white
plumed honey eaters- Porcupine birds.
Bettonyrias [?] plentiful.
10-30 pm. In burnt bad sandhill
country. Occasional clumps She oaks.&


mulga. Yellow butterflies.
Same country to within ¾ mile of rock
after that plain with mulga &
nests of honey ants opened by blacks
Erippus [? Spelling ] close to rock.
W.H small 3-22 in N. face of Ayers
¾ mile on (E. tesselaris only gum)
camped in deep recess hewed in 35 D?
open in west.
Good W-H. tadpoles. water beetles.
Saw wedgetailed eagles nest in E. (sp.?)



Kangaroo 2 first fingers extended throw out
from thumb.

For Big Kangaroo
1st finger extended & shaken. Small one extended.

Uro (cŭnŭlla)

all fingers thrown out from thumb.
back of hand uppermost.
[ handwritten note re : line below ‘crossed out in diary’]
bush kangaroo wallaby
Two first fingers extended & whole hand shaken sideways.
rat.whitetall - (Talco) hand sideways
Rat kangaroo (Mǎl Iǎ

[drawing of gesture C]
2nd finger
overlaps 1st
c 3rd & 4th bent
under & thumb
on 3rd

Move hand as if hopping.

Tempe Downs


[ illustrations 2 gestures: d) Dingo and e) dog] (d

- O
[hand] “

move as
if animal
moving forwards.




move in
imitation of
dog moving
motion forwards
1st finger against



Hapalotis Ladkura [? Lookura]

hand with
fingers all
bunched together f.
back of hand


On Finke R. Finger Up = dog.


Small mouse (Mus)
Peechera. = ä


g........ Scrub.
Tan-alpa Bush Wallaby

(Tempe Downs)








Emu Kurlaya. Tempe Downs.
Thumb (J






Yarumpa --Sugar Ant
First finger extended & moved as
if following hole along.

Mŭrtinka_ (small smooth soft
skin at corners)
Shake (Fore finger
extended) from
side to side.


Tempe Downs
& Finke.




Move to imitate
motion of foot
lift up & down



of parenti & little
lizard ---

shake hand with
fingers outstretched.

n. tail


Same as parenti
first - then with
first finger stretched
imitate movement of tail.


waami (Snake)

Move to imitate
rolling gliding movement
forward of snake.




Arm from
head & neck
& small jerk
at end , exactly
as camel.


Move to
steady slow



move hand as
if pouncing
[hand] down on
Closing as ground
reached &
then lifting up
moving inwards
as if



Move hand as
if hoppin


June 15.
In camp at Ayers Rock
Watt & self went out early round
rock. Copied black drawings. Photod
Sides very precipitous. Possible ascent at
S.W. 'corner'. Smooth surface with
scales peeling off. Big blocks all round
base with hollow caves with crow
dung & drawings. Fig trees. Mulga
Kangaroo grass. Magpie's spring - not
nearly so large as when Cowle here 8
weeks before. Spinifex. Curtain
like appearance of rock side on N.E.
end rounded hummock mass.
In aft. photod & dug up sugar ant
nest. No mud at surface.
Seemed to be a hole in the ground
about 1 in. wide with slight
overhang of sand. [ small illustration]
then went straight down about
3/8" wide for 5ft. Side passages
leading off full of ants & with
few sugar ones in but not in
special chambers. Got 7 with two other
kinds of ants. Nothing in nest in form
of bits of grass etc. At bottom some ants
but ground too hard & hole turned off.


Fish. Antipeni (p has b sound)
not know has seen fish.
Ring Neck Parrot Black cockatoo
irrandi or irrundi
hand loosely extended, dropped
shaken from wrist & elbow raised
up & down at same time.

If want to tell a strange black to
come ,up & be friendly, put
hand up in front of face back
towards black, move round so that
palm faces black then make sign
to come up.

Slightly to one side. No trace of
winged form but Larry says there is
one. Got embryos out of another nest,
in pool at camp large tadpoles,
bluish when alive with dark mottlings.
No trace of adult frogs nor croaking
Since leaving Gill Range scarcely a trace
of grasshoppers.
Small beetles near edge of water & few spiders. Plenty
bulldog ants.


For friendship

Clench hand & flick forefinger
from thumb.
For major operation
same as friendship twice
then point with forefinger down
into centre of two [?] flicks.


Sunday June 16.

[note in margin : E.gamophylla]

Left camp 9.10. over sandy flats with
9.40 Photod Ayers Rock. Low sandhills
occasional oaks &.-grevillea & cassia.
10.15. Started again low sand
occasional dense mulga.
Dinner 12-10. 1-45 started
Oaks. Mulga. 1 Codenocarpus. [?]
Sandy flats dense mulga scrub,
ant.craters with milya leaves.
White ant mounds 1 '-1 '-6" high.
Along S.W. side to spring in rocky
Two trees marked T 5.75 - 7.89 T.
Same lettering on each & E. tesselaris.
One or two E. rostrata.
Few pitchuri on way over. Ptilotis
in cam [?incamis]- latifolius, exaltatus.
Caught 1 young emu. Surprised camp
of blacks under S.W. precipice of


May 11
Small bulb blacks eat. Irri-Akŭra.
The A is half way between Ă & an
Lilliaceous or Amaryllid.
Try burrowing backwards in sand in bed of
Finke R. Lies about 3-8 inches deep
where sand is damp. Some seen
slightly swollen out (with water which passes
out from cloacam when captured) but not all
some -thin. Not from permanent burrows
as those previously caught.

[7 drawings of frog and frog parts, labelled]

Right Hand
Dark greyish Thumb
[frog] brownish

Ground colours silvery
with umber
as in fig. A [eyelid] Upper
eye lid.
as shelf

Figarutless [?] Dark brown border
with dull golden
spot in centre.


Helix Perinflata
Pupa. 2.
Planodis ?

Crotalania [?] Dissitifolia (Trifoliate
leaf with by suppression 1 Leaflett).
Nicotiannous [?] Suaveoleus Blacks chew
stem as Pituri (so called)
Crown Point Desert sandstones with river
gravels on its flanks.

May 18. Friday.
Two blacks at Crown Point. See other end.


May 20.
[drawings 4 objects]

Hakea patch. Mt. Lilla. 15 -20 ft.
Zygophylum (succulent) Finke Crossing

Lepidium Ruderale [handwritten insert] - cress

Spinifex Paradoyns – rush like shrimps at
Finke Crossing

[2 labelled drawings ?? shrimp] Nostrel No. Line

Orange iris
Greater parts
of this scale light front border of scale (orange iris)
Dull brick red Shaded part

Loranthus. Exocarpa Relplorva. Dull brick red



Dull brick


May 21
Temple Tonia [?] Zgenia- Broom like.
Dodonea Viscous - very green lush
long leaves. Viscous.
Erymophilla [Eremophila]
Senecid Greyoni Yellow Margarite [? Marguerite]
in Finke River bed.

Phlotis Exaltatus - Arnarantias
purplish flower on sand hills.
Phlotis Latifolius - small roundish shrub with
whitish everlasting flowers. Sandhills l.ft high.

May 22.
Cassia Ermophylla in flower.
Bulinus Subruflata Operculu [?opercular] like plug of
mud. Distinguishable in form from surrounding
clay & of the consistency & color of lard chocolate.
Dytiscus along with this.
Frog. c. ---- Palmatus in holes at
base of tree in hard dried mud. Blacks
not use this. Mid light dorsal line.
Upper surface dull yellow brown with dark brown
mottlings vent surface light colour (greyish).


Running Waters.
Police Camp
Petermann junct.
Levi & Gills Ranges
Haasts Bluff
Glen. Helen (W. Sonder.)
Missionary Station
Paisley Bluff

May.23. Camp 17. Idracowra.
Brunonia Australis - Blue flower amongst
white Helichysium.
A. Dictyophleba on sandhill in flower
Helichysium Lucidum - yellow. H. Semipapisum white
Philotis Exaltis.
Goodima-white violet flower
Erinophylla Willsu. Large purplish flower
Charles Pillar base of white Friable
Felspathic.[?Felspar] Summit sandstone more
Claponia Pleiopetalla-red purple flowering
most have 5 petals. Munyeroo. This 8 or 9.

[Margin note: GREVILLEA PTER ….]


Over end back along their country"

Harry's account of a fight between

his tribe & the Macdonell.


May 26. Erinophylla Willsii-large purple flower

Esp. on way to Chambers Pillar.

E. Paisleyi -small white flower very

green bushes up to 10ft. in flower esp. on

way from crossing of Palmer to Henbury.

E.Longifolia. This Tubular Corolla [pinkish colour] - Plant

shrub up to 10-12ft.

long thin leaves.

E. Freelingi(?) Tubular Corolla much same

colour only redder & larger than E. Longifolia

in flower esp. on way from Palmer to Henbury.

E. Macdonelli. Blue purple flower smaller

& bluer than E. Willsii. Between camp 18-20.


Varanus sp. Idracowra.

[drawing of fish , labelled: - ]

Light line

greenish grey french grey underneath.


Varanus sp? Idracowra.

Dorsal surface as far back as hind legs
dark brick red.

Dark spots all along
[7 illustrations of fish parts with labels
n.b.? nos. 5-7 on page 19] back. Light cream coloured ones also. No regular
arrangements of either
[1] Dark
Small minute-dark band
light scales.
Fin. scale
Light scales
[2] R idge is always
lightest part
light scales
in light spots is
cream white perhaps
two side by side or two
or one below them
or above.
[3] In dark patches whole
scale & little Papillae around


Greenish grey lat. line
under tail for. Part 2/3 yellow green.



French grey [6]


Greenish ridge dorsal
white ridge.

- - -
Green dorsal


Fiscus Platypodia - near Henbury.
Calitris - Chandler Range

May 29.

Camp 20. 7 –20° at 6-30.
Camp. 21. Light 1326 29° F.
Codonocarpus - Native Poplar.
A. Ancura with ashen grey broad leaved branches
A. Tetragonophylla.
A. Ancura
A. Salicina.
A. Farnesiana. ---- An - - - Plant also.

James Range Flat near. just before
entering gap. Stoney creek.
Lower sil....... of talns scattered over
level land around.

Seringea --blue flower -grey green leaves.
small low growing bush.
Myoporum Dampieri -
Erimophylla [Eremophila]Viscida. Blue flowers leaves very
Prostanthera Willyiana
Canthium Latifolium - allied to coffee plant.

Cassia Artewesiordis lighter
greyer flowers than
C. Erins. & lighter leaves.


May 29.
[drawing of fish with labels]

Dark line on
each side at
Barr of dorsal fin.

Fin yellow. Body silvery below merging into
silver grey half way up side
. barred fish in running water.

May 30. W. Police Camp.

[drawing of fish , labelled]

White [eye]


Gold. Bands


Than 6 upper bands
General surface
silvery darker grey towards
upper half of body


Wednesday. May. 30.

Left camp 8.30. at
11.15 got to track to Ilpila Gorge when
Tate & Watt went off. New low
growing Phlotis with pinkish - - - -
flower. Spinifex. Acacias. Rising
ground. Ranges to L. (N.) across
Mac - - - [?MacDonell] Crk. to Police Camp.

Aft. Spinifex & digging worms. Gorge
D - - - - - - warm night. Rain. Crayfish
Hadra Perinflata. Frog. Lymea.
shells. Bulinus. Stenogyra. Hadra
Samolus repens. Erimophylla. [?Eremophila]
Papilis. Fish Capparis Mitchelli
2 Ferns. 3 sp. Frogs. 1 burrowing in sand.
Tempe Downs letter box at running waters.
open front. bad in S. wind.
IerIra mouse. Lizards. Scolopendra.



Helichrysum Stipitatum yellow bracts on stalks.
[ 2 botanical drawings]
Bassia Paradoxa
blue grey small about
1ft. high spines all
over downy

Bassia Diacanthra
Fruit 2 hory spines
downy leaves etc.

Erimophyllas Pterostylis
skirted ranges to N. Broken Hills. Ruggedly
weathered. Flat lying Palus of stones from
hills -Tesselated.

E. Gammophylla. A. Salicina ect.

May 31.
Stenoqyra Aft. Tuckeri. Q.& N. T.
Hadra Perinfla - Diapl
“ sp. banded
“ sect. Angasidla
Bulimulus Aft Adelaidiensis
" Aft Myoporrine? Always reversed.
Pupa prob. Q. sp.
Bulinus sp. in pool

June. 1.
Melania eiter Baloneusis or Tatei Same as on
Finke at Crown Point.
Lymnea sp.
R. Illara.


Erimophylla Maculata - spotted.
Corolla red. Dark spotted.
[ ‘Friday. Left camp 8.40’ note saying crossed out in diary]

Social caterpilla = Wŭnga.
ant of Spinifex (Put leaves along Womera) = GÍDǏ.

black with
red on it.

(A) Cassia



Calcium = white.
Red ochre = red.

Get grass fibre. Mince it small
& mix it with white or red. Put blood on
& then plaster fluffy material on it.

Corroboree dresses.

Tempe Downs June 4/94.

Down made of grass material mixed with Gypsum
or red or yellow ochre - fixed on with blood drawn
from the penis.


Mt. Shady

To N.E. from hill on S.
opp. Tempe Downs Station.


To W. from hill on S. of Tempe Downs.

Sholze Plains


Peak of Cassia twigs
Pinkish White
Bark [1]

Red Ochre

Cassia typically bound
with hair string

Pinkish white
blood first





Corrobboree dresses
at Tempe Downs
June 4/94

E. Termialis Very white gum. Lime tree of
C.A. Morton Bay ash of Q.;
E. Box
E. Tesselaris blood red
Hakea Laurea cork wood
Grevillea Striata. Beef........


In Walker Gorge Gosipium Sturtii Desert Pea
“ Abutilon Mitchelli yellow

1679 ft. Tempe Downs Station

May 7 Wed. Cinculŭs or Grevillea
juncifollia - Leaves flat & doubly
grooved underneath

Bagot Crk.
Typha Augustifolia - Bulrush
Phragmites Communis - reed
Water plant (Trapa? of Q.) Allied to Potamgeton


Ancillus Australanica (Patella like)
Hadra 2 sp.
on plant with ordinary leaves like Vallisneria
& flowering leaves on surface like Potamgeton
2 sp. Chara in full fruit.
Solarum Erimophylla purple flower very spikey leaf.
Hibiscus Kirchauffi –
Prostanthera Striatiflora –
Cassia Artemesidides


Bagots Crk. June 9.

[3 drawings of tailed creature ? lizard ? fish, at top of page, labelled as below ]

[I:] Golden general body colour blue black iridescent


Prominent light scale eye dark spot

very blue


4 light bands along back
general surface light blue ventral
spots & light bands. Dorsal light
yellow brown. Darker parts blue
black & iridescent.
Dorsal surface of head brownish &
iridescent. Ventral white.
Tail darker stripes brown general
surface dorsal dull flesh colour. Ventral white.

[2 further drawings of creature parts, labelled as below ]

[4] drawing
Light bands. Dorsal surface head rusty brown
dorsal light bands same.

Pinkish brown

[5] [drawing - lateral view]

very clear
cream bands
Bluish white ventral surface.


June 10. Sunday.

Santalaus A .........
E. Tesselaris Pyrifolius Gammophylla
Hakea Salsola Mulga
She Oak Espachyphylla (reddish flour
Clatonia Balonenas )
“ Polyandon) 3 allied species
“ Pleispetala) indifferently called

Reedy Crk. W.H. Stenogyra Bulinus Flattened
Hadra Water Planarian. Potamgeton (Flowering)
Phragmites. Typhus. Aspidurm. Chertanthes
Iasermum Simplicifolium - bright green leaves
Green berries turning bluish
Pittosporum Phyllirioides Isotdma Petrea. Blue Lobelia
Prostanthera Wilkiana. Along from Police Camp.
Grevillea Agrifolia leaves with points like holly.
Red pendant branches.
Hibbertia Glaterrim [?] Yellow flower.
Largest flowering one known.


E. Goodwini Latrobi Macdonelli
Tecoma - Whalenbergia Gracilis
Laranthus Exdcarpa [? Exocarpa] or Culletris.
Snake in pot hole amongst rocks 1.11"
dorsal surface dull yellow brown with
faint darker diagonal markings esp. Towards
post. end.
[ 2 drawings snake’s head follow]

[1 unlabelled, superior view]

[2 lateral view, labelled]
Yellow in front of this

Very glossy head as if french

Cave drawing on s. side Levi Range.

[3rd drawing is of chalice shaped painting]


11” 6”

½ - ¾ “ BROAD


19 ½”



JUNE 11/94


Mt. Olga lovely salmon pink in
morning with blue shadow under
lofty round points. Ayers Rock
brighter red colour in form of
flattened dome. As neared Olga
it gradually broke up into separate
rounded peaks (see sketch)
Ground rises all round Olga -.
densely covered with mulga on
which are numerous holes dug out
by blacks in search of honey
ant. Blacks in camp
near olga had whirlies.
2 Good Chignons each with 2
tufts of white feathers at sides of
top. Small 'baskets' 1'-6"

[illustration of ? small basket , labelled ] long 3" –
& deep.
made of emu

feathers & possum fur. With stones
in for making sharp edge on yam stick to which they are stuck
with resin of ?Trisdia. Good
spears & 'Pidguys' - Blacks were frightened & ran off after
coming near our camp.


Took horses up rocky gorge to
(felix?) Spring - watered them &
came back to camp at Tietkins
marked trees.

Monday June 18

Photod Gorge (Felix Springs) before
sunrise. Very windy during night
with short sharp showers during
evening. Bright moon light down Gorge
left camp 8.a.m. Stopped at blacks
camp 8-15. Got yam stick with flint
at end. Small 'basket' of possum skin
containing bunch of rat tails belonging to
man's Lubra & used at Corrobboree times.
Bunch of emu feathers used by man at
same time - Flint ready for use (must be
carried some distance as none
nearer to Olga than Gill Range. Kangaroo
sinew. Blacks had retired up a
ridge of Olga amongst porcupine & mulga
saw their fires & two black fellows with
us persuaded them to come down.


Very frightened at first
but were reassured by tucker. Taking cakes
fat. sugar. few knives -gave
black my sheath knife for his gear
Chignon & 'basket'. Dense mulga
Left black camp after 4-5min. 4 blacks following
us to Ayers Rock. They kept up
the whole way with us 21-22 miles
running & walking.-- -Stopped to photo
Olga at 10.25 on sandy rise looking
over plain with she oak & mulga.
Took Olga from E. side on 2 plates.
Low lying ridge to N. of us. Hills
away to S. Sandy ridges in
succession to Ayes Rock. Sheoaks
Mulga - Porcupine. Ptilotis. Few
Codoncarpus. Pitchuri. Few E.
Gamdphylla. Near camp at Ayres
A. Salicina. Purple – Blue
native plums ripe at Olga. Also


Whalenbegia Graciles with red & black bugs
on it. At camp at Ayers Lubra had
collected 54 Sugar ants & 2 scorpians [scorpions]. Went
out with Watt to draw native drawings on
rocks. Got yellow flowering shurb [shrub] -up to
8ft. Sticky leaves. Stems at thickest 2~-3in.
on side of rock. Seemed like large
growth of smaller plant - drying up – seen
in many parts across sand flats on way to Olga. Found blacks had
tow kangaroos (see sketch book) Watched
them extract 2 sinews from each leg by
means of stone at end of womera [? Woomera] used
to cut through skin. Then took hitch
round sinew with yam stick & pulled
with foot against rump. Then stretched
with teeth & distal end cut off with
Womera & sinew twisted up & put
with waist string. Small opening made
by Womera into belly – intestine
pulled out & hole stretched up with


pointed stick sharpened by teeth.

[drawing of kangaroo & procedure, with labels ]

--Foot cut off
--Tail cut off
leaving stump 6 ins.

then with hair on laid in hole about 1 ft. deep
& length & breadth of beast (slightly larger) over
which fire made first. Beast laid on
hot ashes & others thrown on top of it &
so cooked for about an hour. Then taken
off. Hind limbs taken off & fore limbs
with Womera. Ribs cut through with
yam stick. Tail stump severed from
sacrum & later from front part of vertebrate
column. Liver-heart etc. taken out
& eaten. Gentlemen cutting up eat
kidneys during his work. Using his
teeth also to tear skin off. Then
meat eaten - Put in amongst ashes
& rolled in them & baked further to



[drawing of kangaroo head at top of page labelled with colours & measurements]




suit taste of eater - Lubras, Picaninnies
& men all have share. Good amount of
sand eaten promiscuously [?promiscuously] but when
actually cutting up the beast was laid
on branches of Acacia with leaves on.
The whole was a filthy, greasy sight
& the joints anything but artistic.
Tuesday June 19.
Left camp 9-30. Struck south
retracing track of journey towards Ayres
Rock. Saw dragonfly & got a small


white & grey Polyprotodont amongst porcupine
grass. Painted lady. Few small
lizards darting in & out of porcupine
½ hr for lunch in this mulga scrub.
Got to Kurtitina (Coulthard's well at
about 5 p.m. camped. Cleaned well out a
little & water began to tricle in.
CowIe stayed up most of night watching
horses to keep them from wandering far. Belt
relieved him at 2a.m. very cold night
water bags frozen.
Wednesday. Jun 20 Up at 5 by stars &
moonlight. At 6. breakfast. Started
6.30. Soon after sunrise. Back to L.
Amadens. 8-30. Took 2 photos. on
bed of Lake with incrustation of salt
about ¼ in thick got spider walking on surface.
One ant hill & numberless little
cones about ¼ - ½ In. Hight & ¼ in
total diameter. Around
this circle of sand particles


with clear space of salt between the circle
made by them &: the central cone. Whole
circle up to 3 in. (or slightly more)
diameter. Hole through core leads
into small tubular hole going down into
damp soil for ½ -3in. & containing
always 2 - 4 or 5 winged ants(?) all
quiescent but bodies not dried. Might
possibly be quiescent with cold.
Whole surface of Lake glistening white in
sunlight. Stayed 1 hr. including
photoing packing up &: crossing lake.
Watt makes level 1380 ft. above sea
level. On to Kamarand's well
another dog had apparently got in &
been fished out by Blacks who had
attempted to burn bodies. Water still
bad but after some persuasion horses
drank a fair quantity. 'Tea Tree' going
around. (Before reaching Lake crossed
two level flats 'Pig Face' like growth


on them. Supposed to be continuous with
L. Amadens [Amadeus] of which they may possibly
be overflows in very wet season).
On from Kamarands well up sandhills
round W. side of Winnall's Ridge. Got
last view of Ayers Rock &: Olga. Pitchuri
(on sand hills to S. &: N. of Lake Plentiful
growth of Eucalyptus Sp. with white stem
from which yellow brown bark peels off in
scales) E. Longifolia very
plentiful &: E. Goodwini. SheOaks
E. end of Winnalls Ridge shows beautiful
Synclyne. 3 miles from Kamarands
Well to east end of Ridge. On about 9
miles over sand hills &: flats with
many SheOaks & patches of thick Mulga
& Spinifex to camp at 5-45 in
Sandy Flat. Distance about 30 miles.
Cloudy moonlight night.
(Ayers Rock consists of rock make up of rock


compound of water iron fragments of Quartz
Felspar -. Mica with cementry material
containing a mineral matter --probably
Olga ‘look’ [crossed through] comp. of pudding stone
with fragements of various rocks (including
Basalt -possibly Gneiss-Quartzite Diorites
Etc. Looks as if derived from discintigration
of Archean rocks - in Olga Rocks dip
20-25º w. Judging by dip of Olga
Ayers Rock lies beneath it
Olga consists of huge rounded masses
all stained with black bands &
covered with light green Lichan. [?lichen] General
colour venetian red. Watched horses 9pm to 3am.

Thursday June 21.

Left camp 6-40.
Lunch 11.40. Started 12-15.
Bagots Crk. 4.15. Travelled on for
20 miles over sand hills. After 2 or


[margin note:]

3 miles turned off over to N.E.
sand hills high obscuring view of
Gill Range. Dense Mulga scrub
great number of fire desert Oaks. 2
kinds of porcupine ordinary one & other with
shorter, denser heads which cattle will eat
(also round Henbury & Idracowra) on
burnt patches great number of
with beautiful red flowers clustering
round its base. Cassias twisted into
[illustration] shape. Erinophyllas.[?Eremophilas] Sand hill
Gum. E. Gamophylla. & another Mallee
Gum. (Not Pyriforuis) Prostanthera
Wilkiana. Codons Carpus Cassia
Arthemesioides in flower. Soon after
lunch came out of big sand hills & saw
bluffs of Gill Ranges standing out. Struck
pad about 5½ miles E. of Bagot Crk. &
rode on to latter.


Beefwood = Grevillea.
Bloodwood = E. Tesselars.
Ironbark = A. Salicina.
Balsas = E. Paisleyi
Poplers[?Poplars] = Codonscarpus.
Lime Tree = E. Terminalis

Kurtitina = Coulthard’s Well
Urnterpata = Kamarinds.
Purntoo = L Amadens [Amadeus]
Oolara = Ayres Rock
Kartutŭta = Olga – Ta- =
ºº ºº
Lungkartitukukana - Name of Guide
to Mt. Olga.

Lilla = Reedy Hole

Wǎnmǎrra = Bagots Crk.
Wǎtǎrka = King Crk.
Cochinga = Lauries Crk.

Friday June 22.

Left Bagot Crk. 7-45. Went up Crk.
Through Martins Pass. Rather five escarpments.


of red Silurian rock. Blue purple flower- Grevillea
Agrifolia. On to top with good view of
Petermann Pound. Shut in to sky Gill
Range to N. by Statin Range. There two
curve round to W. & join each other so as
to shut in pound save to E. end where it is
continuous with flat running down to Petermann
Gap. Three mile across pound
then 2 S. Then up Statin Range. Walked
horses --very rough * descended shelving
rocky 'path' to Shake’s Plain on top
'golden willow' flowering also.
On to 19 mile W.H. lunch. 2 blacks &
boy. On along Shakes Plain to
Walker Valley. Tempe Downs. To
N. of us we had long series of rounded
bluffs with escarpments. General dip to N. (Gills
Range in Syncline also levi). Hills all cut through from N to S. (Especially


Statin Range) by Gorges from WH. Small
Gums -Creeks ran out. Good E. Rostrata
along Walker. Plenty of Erimophylla [Eremophila]
Paisleyi along Shakes Valley.
At Bagot Creek the Lower of the two W.H's [?water holes]
near camp had at least 6 times as
much water in it as when we were
there 13 days before.
Distance 37 miles.

Saturday June 23.

Up late at Tempe
Downes. Got rations & left at 12-45
after trying to put small camera right.
Along to Illara waterhole & then up
Palmer. Constant succession of small
water holes with reeds. Two shags.
Black duck. Teal. Quite dry away
from immediate contact with water
salt on dried banks in places.
After passing Illara W.H. came out on


to horse plains then down into Crk.
Again & on to Eagle Plains when
camped by W.H. on Palmer.
Ridges all around. Gastrolobium
Groves on ridges & 26 cattle poisoned
here lately. Distance about 17 miles.

Sunday June 24. Therm.197 at 6 am.
Left camp on Wild Eagle Plain at 7.40.
Travelled along Palmer to Gorge very
narrow with rocky bed. At end of Gorge
Bowsons W.H. 7. miles. Flat with grass
& porcupine & hills in distance for about
2½ miles. Then Gorge to Shag hole
13 miles from Bowsons. Lunch & halt
for 2¼ hrs. In W.H. Bulinus. Flat
black shell something like Ancillus. Water
beetles & small beetles under stones by
W.H. on damp-sand-Palisneria & Chaser.


in W.H. Kind of Mason fly black &
white dragging spider up stem of E. Rostrata
on for 3½ hrs. (13 miles) to camp at
Pine Point along Broad Valley with hills
gradually widening out & getting lower.
Valley after Shag Hole is hollowed out
of anticline hills to S. Dipping S. & to N.
dipping N.
E. Rostrata. Terminalis Pyriformas Terselaris
Gospidium Sturti.
Old man porcupine – One clump 6 or 7 ft. high & at least 15ft. diameter
Mulga – branches Horizontal growing near creeks more
vertical in other parts.
Cossus moth hanging onto blade of one -very
prominant. Cassias in full flower –
Various Acacias. Prostranthera Striatiflora.
Ant hills -Craterform with Mulga leaves
as usual. Few cocoons of social caterpillars on


at 5.a.m. Therm.16F. This up till

Monday June 25. Left Pine Point Camp
7.40. Went out of Palmer Valley over
low rise to missionary plain. Stopped
to photo grass trees. These with flowering
stems to top of WH. 12ft. in some cases.
Leaves narrower than x. major. On over
undulating plains into scrub with Prostantheras.
Mulga. Sterculia (7) Erinophyllas. Grevilleas
(E Sp.? with 2 purple lines inside Corolla)
A.Salicina. Three gums of Mallee habit
one E. Gamophylla - 2 unknown
Out on to flats with burnt porcupine-plenty of 'Old man porcupine' Acacia with large spherical flower heads not growing
more than 6-10 ft. high usually only
3 or 4 This also at times in Creek Beds.
Travelled towards Mt.Gosse - A red
mass rising out of plains about 2 miles long
each way. On to Rudalls Crk. At
N. of Gosse Mt. Water hole for lunch


[note in margin: PROSTANTHERA]

ground round Gosse Mt. Traversed by many
narrow water courses.

After about 17 miles. Fish Numatocurtris
Cockroach. Spider. Small beetle. Locust.
Sterwgyra. Hadoa Perinflata & Flattened
forms with 2 lines bands & 2 sp. of Pupa (?)
Dead in sand & debris amongst stones by W.H.
on over flats with porcupine. E. Gamophylla
& Tesselaris rising toward S. Macdonells.
A series of jumbled hills -down-like
in appearance covered with porcupine –
travertine very common. Phlotis in caves
Exaltatus & another. Helichrysum white &
yellow. Painted lady. Few social
caterpillars nests on Cassias. Santalum
in flower (Sumth stone -red & purple berry)
E. Tesselars -- Trees at intervals dotting the
porcupine covered hills. Up Gorge in
latter with Mt. Gosse behind & Razorback
in front. From plains had view of
Heuglin. . Gil. Razorback & Sonder.
Camp in S.Macdunnells just after sunset.
Distance about 27 miles


E. Christophoria Lavender Blue Sessile flower
Mt. Sonder.

Hair of child (girl)
Sand Hill blacks
Mt. Olga
Up to
end of Nov.

Horn Union Club

Pall Mall


Sandy Loam.

Chalceanised Shale.

R.F. Thornton Esq.
Exchange Hotel
Hindley St.


Gibber is sandstone indurated by
Opalescent infiltration.
Formed by disintegration of desert sandstone
reddish & darker colour outside Gibber is
due to oxidisation of iron (Ferric Oxide) iron red
to almost black.

Clays at Dalhousie Marine. With Gypsum
showing conditions against animal life
tertiary (Pleiscene) [?Pleistocene]deposits at Dalhousie Spring.

Frogs at Camp 7. Adminga Waterhole.
on banks above waterhole
& around hole under stones in crevices
& one or two in water. Length of larger
ones from Snout to Cloaca.


Greyish umber brown on back with darker mottlings.
Light line along from tip of snout to level o[f]
tip of eye & little above Tympanum
dark band beneath this to eye & around Tympanum
& on-along side of body.
Limbs generally of light colour - Ventral [surface]


Surface light coloured & jenis [?penis] transparent
appearance. Yellow on out & port surface of thigh
& side of body continuous with
out side of leg.
Also on out & front part of 'leg' &
upper of foot.

[Drawing of frog leg & toe follow with labels:

Yellow. Hind foot
All toes with flattened
swollen Tonerinatis

Tympandum distinct.

Burrowing frog. Boggy flats. May 14-94.

Fluid mainly-apparently in Pintoneal [?peritoneal] cavity
Sings [? Sinus] largely distened [?distended] & reaching back to
feline [?] region ' only with air. not Cont. [?containing]Fluid.
Certain amount of water in subcutaneous spaces
frogs lie in burrows from 6-8 to 12 inches below
surface. Round hole fits body & sides are


[large drawing labelled : AESTIVATING FROG IN BURROW]

slightly moist. Cracks lead down & marked
by prints of frog as going down.
At base of & amongst roots of Chenopodium Nitrariaceum
eyes covered with film & apparently do not see. Are
not at first affected when sun shines on them. After
a time pupil begins to dilate.
Apparently identical with those found in water holes.
Lower down on Oodnadatta. Opossum Crk. Etc.


[Note in margin:

Cynanchum Floribundim
Yellow & Black Erippus feeding plant of
DIVARICATOR (= BLACK ANCOLJA)[handwritten note]
Leschenantia Stirata [? Leschenaultia.;] [Stirata crossed through]

[handwritten note re: stirata: ] CROSSED OUT IN DIARY
Prob. From roots of
This black obtain kind of resin. Plants not
seen in flower. Leafless plants .
[handwritten note re: ‘plants’] CROSSED OUT IN DIARY.

[arrow to Erippus]
allied to D. Erripus which feeds on
Gomphvearpus Americanna An
Introduced plant belonging to same order
as Cynanchum. In Queensland
feeds on Lantana a Laliate (which
is introduced).
E. Rostrata seen from Charlotte Waters
up to Goyder.
A Triodia Pungens in bed of Goyder.


Frogs in Goyder Well.






[3 drawings at top of page:]

mottling on
hind legs

General light
umber [handwritten]

umber [handwritten]

orange patches

Ventral surface. Light coloured


Tympanum not visible when alive.
Eyes very prominent
in the adult. No larger
ones found.

L. Ornatus
Top of

Bronze patch

Ro.... or old river gravel with gravity
on to de..... ........ of desert
sandstones. Small outcrops of old
cassias gum (....one) Hakea
Mulga (with Coranthus.)
Gum umbrella shaped rims of foliage-painted
fruits back rough. E. Terryinatis. or.
[drawing of ?gumnut]

Lizard & [drawing] -light---band
Behind vent whole body Drk.Umber
Dorsal & vent shades off into red. Ventral area.

Shading off into
red tail
Red Red


Halpania Cerulea. Blue low lying.
Tribalus [??Tribulus] Forrestii with wings as seeds.
Coceinclid [?] Beetles in dead gum at hunting
Rising sandy tableland after camp brow of hill
with view back to Daniels Range & N. to
Brown Point.

Zygophyllam along Finke Valley.
Adnoolja = Frequent also' (yams)
Acacia Salicuii in flower. May.16. Camels
fond of them. Cassis Hymophlles. [?]


Finke Valley -Hills to E.
Finke Valley.

Developed -Drop back

Cassia Ermophylla _ -Yellow flower.

Rights: Museum Victoria