Spencer & Gillen

A journey through Aboriginal Australia

Journal (1) Spencer Gillen Expedition to Central Australia.

Physical Description

Notebook. Green, hard covered. Label adhered to front cover with typed annotation. Yellow sticker with number 5. Inside front cover loose sheet with typed transcription from page 8. First page has handwritten title, outline of content and is initialled by Baldwin Spencer. Entries in pencil.

Primary Comments

Spencer's field Journal 1901-2. The expedition commenced in Adelaide March 15 1901 and ended in Melbourne March 17 1902. Large bound notebook. Type written label on front cover reads: "Journal (1) Spencer Gillen Expedition to C.A.' Inside cover reads: "1. Journal Spencer Gillen Expedition to Central Australia. Adelaide. March 15, 1901. Borroloola. November 2. 1901. Melbourne March 17 1902. W.B.S." Begins March 19th, Camp 1. Swallow Creek and ends Barrow Creek 4th July.


Front Cover

Journal (1) Spencer Gillen EPDN. to C.A. 1901-02.

Page 1

Spencer Gillen Expedition to Central Australia
Adelaide - March 15 1901
Borroloola – November 2 1901
Melbourne March 17 1902

Page 2

Camp 1
March 19 1901. Camp 1. Swallow Creek Native Name Wilparinna.

Left Oodnadatta 10.30am having sent Chance with the big buggy and stores on ahead the day before. Had altogether 12 horses, 4 belonging to Lands Dept. 3 were packed, 3 with riding saddles, 4 in large buggy & 2 in small buggy. 6 horses were hired from Maronsan ^ (£12) to go as far as Horse Shoe Bend with the option of purchasing them there at £10 per head. 2 from Wallace.
Three l back [black] boys Warwick who will go through with us, Sambo and Billy the two latter going back after serving sentence in Port Augusta for cattle spearing.
Drove to Swallow Creek were we found Chance & everything all right and camped. Put up fly tent without which it would be impossible to write or eat as the flies are a perfect pest. Repacked a good many of the bundles. Strong S.E. wind but not exceptionally hot.
Very little bird life about - only saw a few plovers. Only one lizard (A. barbatus).
Evening changing plates: talking over plans etc.
H.F. Lewis en route to Newcastle waters came to the Swallow with horses in the morning. Solar rad. max 144.

Camp 2
March 20. 1901. Wednesday. Wire Creek

Terest. min 50.5
Up at sunrise. Breakfast 7. Packed up ready to start but only 8 horses brought in. Warwick returned with 2 gov. horses at 10. They had wandered back to Oodnadatta. Boy came in with wires one from a Mr Brooke out from Cambridge offering £200 toward expense if he might come with us & another from Sir S Way in regards to camel photos. Wired to Seydin regarding insurance.
Got way 10.15 & went to Storm Creek wh. had muddy

Page 3

native name Storm Creek }
native name Wire Creek } Uringa (parts of same Crk)

Page 4

water holes all along it. Then on to Wire Creek where we found Lewis &had lunch with him, Chance coming in shortly afterwards. Put up fly tent & wrote notes on aft.
Country all gibber plains but stones hidden from view by grass and Tribulus: the fruits of the latter fortunately not ripe. Bore at Wire Creek too hot to hold hand in. Flies awful. Solar Rad. max 145.5

Camp 3. Macumba
March 21. Thursday Macumba.

Terr. rad. Min. 51.5.
University lectures begin today.
Left Wire Crk 8am. Crossed wide, open, well paved[?] gibber plain for about 12 miles. Clay pans drying up & in some cases crammed full of Apus. & Erthoria[?] with a few Branchipus. A little Mitchell grass with much Tribulus. Giddea mostly with little Mulga here and there. Crossed Alberga where was plenty of water with Apus, some of which had 10 or12 water beetles clinging on & devouring them. Many of the Apus were struggling to get on to sand to lay eggs. A few plants of Darling lilly near the creek & a few patches of nardoo (Marsilia quadrifolia).
Gillen & self in small buggy drawn by Barber and Nugent crossed the creeks easily but Chance with big buggy & Maronsan team got bogged. Sent back Lepper and Baldy to take place of two of team & then they got through, but did not reach Macumba till 2 hours after us as horse jibbed on the road and Chance had both eyes bunged. Owing to this we camped close below Macumba by the Stevenson. Only birds seen were few plovers, crows, letter winged kite & water hen. No natives about.
Large number of young L. ornatus on sand at Alberga.
Solar^ rad. Max. 140.5.
Native name Macumba Unthurtinna.

Page 6

Camp 4. 2 ½ N of Macumba
March 22. Friday.

Terr. Min. 59
Up at 5.30. Breakfast before sunrise so as to avoid flies.
Bad start. Horses strayed & when brought in 3 of Maronsan team refused to pull small buggy and so had to harness 2 of gov. horse to it. Then the team refused to pull large buggy but after changing finally made a start at 10.15 but came to dead stop in heavy sand along Stevenson. Fortunately C. Ryan an old experienced mail driver was passing with a camel team & with his assistance drove on a hundred yards halted & camped. Must simply wait here until we can get fresh horses. In aft. Mr A Mackenzie passed & promised to see his brother who was coming up with the road with a team for Bloods Creek & make arrangements for the horses. We blessed the Maronsan team but could do nothing. Put up tent in hope of getting some natives for photograph records.
Got apus out of waterhole. Not a bird or lizard or any animals to be had.
Chance two bunged up. Gillen one.
In the evening 6 natives^Arunta came in and we got some excellent (12 cylinders) records of corrobboree. Mourning wail, Wah! etc song of the Urumpilla (Engwura) Sentences. Names of places, Lartna song of N. and S. Arunta. Natives much interested and excited. Went over to their camp later on 7 had talk with them.
Solar rad. max. 139.3

Page 8

small L. ornatus hopping about on sand. Of the Ertheria E. packardi deep red colour most plentiful; another sp. only slightly tinged with red not nearly so numerous. Cyclops in pool.
Only birds about are crows: shot one-white eye.
Gillen got bung eye

Camp 5.
March 24 Willow Well

Terr. min. 48.5
Up before sunrise & breakfast before many flies about. Packed up and waited for Mackenzie. Horses very troublesome with flies. M. came about 10.30 & at 10.45 started off but big buggy came to standstill 30 yards from camp. Gillen & I came behind in small buggy. About 8 stops on the way with the big buggy & a great deal of trouble. Roads very heavy and sandy. Everything remarkably silent. very few birds. Magpie, green parakeets. Solitary gehyra varegata. Darling Lilly. Small amount of nardoo in creeks. Flies awful as usual.
Camped at Willow well 3.15 Distance 12 ½ miles
Native name Arthirralina
Solar max. 138.5 (only exposed 3.30-4)

Camp 6.
March 25 Ulabarinna

Terr. min. 49.5
Started 7.45. Along Stevenson all day. crossing creeks running into this from tableland. Big buggy stuck two or three times. Magpies more abundant. Few kites. Flock parrot cockatoos. Mostly Mulga scrub the greater part of which was only just beginning to recover from effects of drought. Grass beautiful on flooded land. Darling lilly, patches of nardoo. Flies as usual, Track to Dalhousie. Passed Ulabarinna & on two or three miles to deserted huts. at 1pm. Found that little bird gun had been lost. The big buggy had swingle bar

Page 10

smashed when horses jumped away at start but got over Break -down Crk safely. Firth started an hour ahead of us but we did not overtake him. In late aft. walked over to river. Water pools rapidly drying up. Very few Apus & Estheria & tadpoles of C. platycephalus and large number of L. ornatus on sand. Two turkeys – first seen. Plenty of tracks of small marsupials – probably bandicoots. In aft. Hopkin with team of 14 horses came in.
Solar max 142.

Camp 7.
March 26 Possum Creek

Terr. min. 52.
Rather warm night with a few mosquitos about. Tried two light draft horses in buggy and decided to buy them. Fison and Howitt (£25). Started 7.50. Rose on to high gibber tableland: down to Hamilton Bore turn off – then on to big tableland and down to Chickora Creek & then on to Possum Creek. Camped. 20 miles. In small pools E. lutraria and E. packardi in same pools with Apus & Branchipus. Flies as usual. New horses went very well. Road very rough and stony. Red mulga in flower. Only birds seen except[?] kite were about 100 swallows. In pool in Possum Crk. large masses of Lacinularia sp. 2in. long x ¾ wide
C. Platycephalus in water hole.
Solar max. 154.

Camp 8.
March 27 Adminga Creek

Terr. min. 52.
Left camp 7.30 Along Stevenson: country quite green. Struck off towards table land and cut telegraph line then on along this for 7 miles. Found men in shanty enjoying themselves so halted in crk for lunch. Started off along line. Very rough track over stony table lands – gibber.

Page 12

distant view of Mt. Frank. One or two crossings and then camped in giddea by Adminga Creek. Pools here all full of various stages of C. platycephalus. No apus in river pools but in holes on table lands. Coach passed camp late in aft. J Besley on.
Were disappointed not to find at least two horses waiting for us at Bloods Creek.
Travelling all day so no solar max. Very hot day.

Camp 9.
March 28 C.W.

Terr. min. 57
Left Adminga 7.20. Very rough road to level of Mt. Frank. then good road in to Charlotte Waters, arrived 10.30. Byrne out but soon came in. Unpacked buggie & took things into station where we camped. Bunks out in front of the station. Got phonograph records in evening. Flies awful before sunrise – the worst yet met with.
Solar max. 149.5.

Camp 9.
March 29 C.W.

Terr. min. 64.
Cloudy morning. Got photo. material ready. Phonograph record of few lubras quarrelling. Boy sent out in search of missing horses and another to bring blacks in. Evening phonograph.
Solar max. 149.

Camp 9.
March 30 C.W.

Terr. min. 62
Morning fixing up cinematograph. Aft. fighting flies, evening got records on phonograph of rain corrobboree with cry of Plover. also men quarrelling.
Solar max. 143.

Page 14

Camp 9.
March 31 C.W.

Terr. min. 58.
Quiet day. Scraped cylinder in morning. Aft. walked across to Billabong. Natives round station are building small huts with fire places. Census evening. After we were asleep Cowle came in. Got up and talked till 11.30 then again turned in.

Camp 9.
April 1 C.W.

Terr. min. 61.
Cowle went off to collect papers at Sandfords. 10.30: Byrne went part way with him. Sent lubras out collecting. Got S. crassicandata, S. larapenta. (one with young in pouch) Conilurus (cervinus?) with distinct chest gland. Amphibolurus pictus, P. longinstris.
Natives brought in sticks for rain dance. Evening writing.
Solar max. 159.5.

Camp 9.
April 2 C.W.

Terr. min. 68.5.
Intended to photo. & got ready but clouds and wind and dust storms came up. Went down to Crk. where natives were painting up sticks. Cowle came in 1.30. Mr McNamara came 4pm.
Natives eating ilia kaminna - evidently a fungus. but natives say it grows in connection with three cornered jack (Tribulus terrestris). Native name of muryeru is ilana. beetles in this called ilana-ilana. Day very cloudy. Few drops in morning but high S.wind. Dust storms.
Solar max. 143.5
[margin note] Magellan clouds 2 stars camping 2 blacks.
Inji kinji-tera. Two stars representing two black men whose camp is Magellan clouds
Inūra = big spider

Page 18

lifted out and driven on with a Churinga. On & on they travelled all day long & bye & bye he got all right. Then the man drove him along a hill. At Idnuringa he was caught & eaten by another man who was Ulpmerka. Thinthipera sat down at Idnuringa
Evening developing photos.
Solar max. 143.
Coach came in from the south at 12.30. Cowle & Mr McNamara left in aft.

Camp 9.
April 5 C.W.

Terr. min. 49.5.
[margin note] Quab quatcha.
[margin note] black cockatoo bringing rain from north

Quabara Quatcha. Irria.
The decorated man had down on face & back representing clouds.
[small sketch with annotations]( – white clouds – black feather – white – red quatcha – white)
Red band round stomach = water.
Black cockatoo feather plume on head because in Alcheringa black cockatoos brought rain from North.
A man named Inungamella came down from the north to visit another named Irria & tried to persuade the latter to go back up north with him. The old man Irria said no I won’t go. Then Inungamella started back but after a time sat down behind a big sand hill. Irria was a great rain maker then started to make rain wearing cockatoo feathers on his head. Heavy rain fell and Inungamella came back to see what it meant & found Irria rain making.
[margin note] Inungamella takes lumps of gypsum away wh. represent clouds & enable him to perform intichiuma
Then Irria took big lumps of gypsum (unkutta) from his belly and Inungamella took these away to the north to a place called Inungamella which is near to Paddy’s hole on Erlithera Creek. There he put these lumps of gypsum, which represent clouds and enable him to make intichiuma along the pond thereby making a big oknanikilla there. Irria told him that when performing the Ceremony he (Inungamella) was to paint one band around his body but not to cover his face with down so as to be okilcha. Whilst he (Irria) would do

Page 20

this. In the ceremony Irria carries a pitchi called unpupara [unpirpara?] in which he carries the gypsum for which he’s supposed to be looking.
In the aft. down to the mile hole again. Another rain dance this time only one man with stick other 10 with down bands. Evening developing plates. Tried Cinemato. on both ceremonies.
Solar max. 139.5.

Camp 9.
April 6 C.W.

Terr. Min. 51.5
Morning fixing up things generally. Aft. woman’s dance. Not much good. Cinemato. Evening printing photos.
Solar max. 146.5

Camp 9.
April 7 C.W.

Terr. Min. not recorded
All day spent in writing up diary & letters. Evening printing.
Solar max. 149.5

Camp 10.
April 8 C.W.

Terr. Min. 59.5. All day writing for mail which came in from north 7.30. Bailes & C. Brookes (M.C, A.G) came in. Evening printing. Solar max. 163.5.

Camp 9.
April 9 C.W.

Terr. Min. 53.5.
Up before sunrise to finish off letter for S.mail which went at 9. Sent cinemato. films up to date viz. 1 & 2. 1st Rain dance, 3. Okira Quab, 4. Snake of Akilcha. 5. 2nd Rain dance. 6. Quatcha of Irria. 7. Lubras dance. All morning & aft packing up ready for start. Mr Taylor came up from new Crown Pt.
Solar max. 159.7.

Page 22

Camp 10.
April 10 Sandhills 12 miles from C.W.

Terr. Min. 53.
Packed up the buggies in the morning. Left C.W. 3pm. Travelled on across Creek & then by Telegraph line for 4 ½ miles: sand heavy. Turned off ^main track on to track leading to New Crown Pt. Station. Thin Mulga scrub with Grevillea & little Giddea. Little cotton & salt bush. Purple vetch in flower also yellow Tribulus beginning to seed and dry up. Went on for about 12 miles & camped on the flat amongst thin Mulga. Byrne rode with us and camped for night. Gillen & self wrote notes after tea when flies somewhat subsided. At C.W. had picked up our 2nd boy – Jim Kite alias Erlikibiakirra. No chance to get solar max. Telegraphed to wives. Also to Sir C. Todd asking for leave for Byrne to take solar max & ter. min. Through year. Bought mare from Chester for £6.10.0 – Chappie.

Camp 11.
April 11 Boggy Flat

{Terr. Min. 49.7
Boggy Flat {Bar. 6am 29.385
{an. - 555

{an. 130 620
New Crown Pt. {Bar. 29.325
{att. 84.5
{Solar max. 2pm. 153.5
Left camp 7.30. On between sandhills. Grevillea, A. ulicina, seeding. Parakilia in flower. Corurwulirs [?] Helichrysum. Green parakeets. Kites. Diamond sparrows with nests & eggs. 8 miles to New Crown Pt. Station close by Finke, native name Lirawa. Mr Taylor & L. MacFadyen here. Former entertained us to sumptuous dinner. Started at 2.30 leaving Byrne there. Rounded spur of Mt. Daniel & came into Boggy Flat where is grave of James Alexander MacFarlane. aetat 25. Suddenly shot. gun accident. 5 minutes after starting in morning. G & S got to other side of flat at 5. Chance came up 5.30. Broken swingle bar hence hour’s delay. Flies detestable.
Swing therm – 2pm 89
“ “ 9 74
aneroid 9 640
bar. 9 29.300

Page 24

Camp 12.
April 12 Black Rock Finke River

Terr. Min. 62
{an. 6am. 630
{bar. “ 29.380
{swing “ -74
{ “ 2pm 90

{[an. 9 -752
{bar. 9 29.180
{swing “ 75.2
Left camp 7.50. Flies awful. S. got half a bung eye. Travelled on slowly till crossed Goyder at Telegraph line. Country very heavy with sand. Mulga and a little giddea scrub. Very hot & horses tired. From edge of escarpment where came down steep decline had views of Finke Valley & camped beyond Hellgates at Black Hill. Mr Taylor came in with fresh meat. In aft. went along bank of Finke. Boys cut down gum tree with nest of Catbird Tchn-okitcha, cockatoo parrots. Moloch. Tracks of Notoryctes. Eremophilas (3sp.) in flower. Native name of Black Hill. Ulpirria. Waterhole – Kurtikāwa.

Camp 13.
April 13 Afghan W.H. on Finke

Terr. Min. 52.7
Aneroid 7am. 752 9pm 900
bar. 7am 755 9pm 29.175
att. ther ------------- 9pm 76
swing ther. 7am 74 nom. 88. 9pm 76
Left camp 8am. 4 miles of good road by side of Finke. Black cockatoos eating 3 cornered jacks. Went down into bed of Finke at Green Water Hole. Native name Kirtikiua. Then out again & then in & along under yellow cliff. native name Árākuia. Stopped up short time to photo there. Then on past old Crown Pt. Station now deserted. native name Út-watcha. Over Finke through Cunningham Gap to Afghan Water Hole which nearly dried up. native name Ulterokita. Native name Crown Pt. Hill, Arulidna. Camped at noon. In aft. clouds came up & it looked threatening but no rain fell at Crown Pt. though there were evidently showers all round. Flies during day worse than ever. Decidedly warm. Taylor came to our camp & then went on to Paddy’s Hole. Photod Crown Pt. from sand hills looking South. G excelled himself in cooking steaks.

Page 26

Camp 14.
April 14 Amesbury Clay Pan. near Mt. Squire

Terr. Min. 51.2
Aneroid 7am. 950 9pm. 1160
bar. 7am. 28.975 9pm. 28.750
att. ther 7am. 64.5 9pm 76.5
swing ther 7am ----- 3pm 93. 9pm 71.5
Left camp 7.30 after very dirty and uncomfortable camp. Track very rough leading up over escarpment of Finke Valley. Road much washed away. On through heavy sand to Mt. Squire & then about 3 miles on leaving track to bend – to Amesbury Clay Pans. which is surrounded by red sand hills. Pan about 100 yrds long by 40 broad. Ertheria lutiana. Apus (few). 2 shovel nosed ducks. Rain fallen last night. G got another bung eye. Flies worse than ever. Night awful.

Camp 15.
April 15 Near Erigurdina

Terr. Min. 41.5 an. 3pm. 1160 9pm. 1075.
Aneroid 7am 1130
bar. 7am 28.785 bar 3pm 28.755 9pm 28.850
att. ther 7am 62.5 att. 3pm 94 9pm 76.
swing 7am ---- 3pm 94.5 9pm 76.
Left camp 7.25. Flies worse than at any other camp. With us all night. Mulga flats round behind Erigurdina for about 9 miles. Camped at 10.30 on an open stony flats close to hills with valley running down to main Finke Valley. Away to N. sand hills with telegraph line. Sent Chance with Warwick in to Bend for stores & to deliver Maronsan’s ^6 horses to Elliott. Glad to see the last of the beasts. Chance to bring back horses sent by Robertson from A.S. to meet us. Clouds coming up all round. Tried to rest but flies too many. At 3.30 Chance came back with Grant & 6 horses – 4 for us & 2 lent by Robertson. 4 others to be delivered at A.S. Clouds came up & it began to rain but only a little fell. Then cleared up. Tradition concerning heaps of stones etc near camp.
[margin notes] Tradition of heaps of stones near Bend.
In Alchuringa lived here a woman of Injirra (grass seed) totem. The men of Erigurdina took away her son to Urapuncha to be initiated. The men there took a great fancy to him for he was aralkirra (fair in colour). They tried to palm another boy on her & he was brought

Page 28

back but she was continually on the lookout and when she saw them coming ^accompanied by Urapuncha men/ in the distance knew that it was not her boy. She was angry and put arungquiltha into water which she gave them all to drink. The men vomited and the heaps of stones represent what they vomited & the men died straight away.
[margin notes] Fires lighted at stone heaps to make it warm etc
The boy did not die straight away but crawled on hands & feet near to Erigurdina & then died and a stone endowed with arungquiltha marks the spot. A fire lighted at this stone makes it so hot that the sand is uncomfortable to walk on. Fires lighted at the heap of stones which are in the charge of an Injura man make it comfortably warm in cold weather. Where the woman died a stone also arose charged with arungquiltha.
[margin notes] Aperta arakutja
This stone = aperta arakutja and by rubbing it people can be killed. The boy is represented by a white churinga (taken by Maurice & probably in Winnecke’s collection).
[margin notes] Churinga uritherita
In evening native brought ^stone churinga of woman called Uritherita (also name of her totem – small lizard). She travelled from Aperamerka up Lilla Crk to Alice Well to a point 5 miles N. of this where is big stone. She tumbled into the fire and burnt her head as is seen by a mark at one end of Churinga.

Camp 16. April 16
The Depot native name: itwar-timma

Terr. Min. 56
Aneroid 7am 990 9pm 990
bar. 7am 28.930 9pm 28.930
att. ther 7am 72 9pm 76.5
swing ther 7am 73 9pm 76.5
Had to wait in camp. horses strayed. G & S started 9.30 Horrible day over sand hills to Depot. First Desert oak as came to first sand hill. Very few flowers. S got 3rd bung eye on road. Parrax. Porcupine 2sp. Halted in shade at Desert Oak for lunch. Driving Fison & Howitt. awfully slow & sober. Depot 3.30. Dead crow in well. Horses would not drink it. Hugh River native name Lirra-tutinji.

Camp 17. April 17
Double crossing on Hugh native name Ulkna

Terr. Min. 55
Aneroid 7am 940 9pm 1030
bar. 7am 28.985 9pm 28.890
att. ther 7am 62 9pm 66
swing ther 7am 62.5 9pm 66

Page 30

Left camp 7.30. Lang & Lubbock. Crossed Hugh 7 times to Alice Well. All bad especially one. Met Mr Bradshaw travelling S. Hablett driving. Whole track very heavy. T. mitchelli & T. Iritans. Roly Poly green. Desert Oaks. Cassias. Eremophilas. Mulgas. Alice Well at 1.30. Tried to get on to A.S. but not successful. Chance came in at 2. Wrote few lines for mail. Started 3.30 with Tylor & Frazer. Passed down mail (to S.) near Double Crossing. Camped on little flat on bend of Hugh.

Camp 18. April 18
Francis Well

Left camp 8.30. Fison & Howitt. Horses had strayed.
Crossed Crk & then horses walked the whole way 17 miles to F.W.
Awful slow. Flies not so lively as usual
Terr. Min. 49
An. 6.30am 1040 9pm 1125
bar. 6.30am 28.885 9pm 28.790
att. 6.30am 48 9pm 66
swing 7.30am 66 9pm 68
Struck telegraph line about 3 miles from well near Mt Percy.
Amph. Recticulatus. E. Gamphylla. Panax. Porcupine. Cassias. Hakea in flower & fruiting Desert Oaks. Halted 10 minutes for lunch under Oaks. Camp at 3. 6 ½ hour travelling & resolved never again to drive F & H in our buggy. Drew water from well for horses.

Camp 19. April 19
Sand Hills 5 miles (?) from Deepwell

Terr. Min. 47
An. 7am 1159 3pm 1325 9pm 1175
bar. 7am 28.770 3pm 28.585 9pm 28.740
att. th. 7am ----- 3pm 88 9pm 61.7
swing th. 7am ----- 3pm 89.5 9pm 67
Left camp 7.30. Upland plains gradually rising till good view S. to Mt Percy & N. to Mts Charlotte & Braeden. Desert Sandstone. Saw ‘turkey’. Native broom. Braeden’s dam noon. Plenty of Black Cockatoos. On cassias 3 or 4 nests of chestnut eared in one mass. White eyed crows. Spelled till 4.15. Started off with F. & H. travelled over flats till reached edge of sand hills – 7 miles. Total 21 miles. Are just passing edge of desert sandstone & getting on to ordorician. Narrow belts of limestone crossing country E & W. only

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2 or 3 ft. wide. Can see James Range in distance. Met 2 natives at dam & 4 lubras & 1 young one walking along carrying loads of gelka on heads. Very thirsty: gave them water. Brought water on with us as dry camp. Cool evening.

April 20
Camp 20. Sand Hills 6 miles S. of Ooraminna
Terr. Min. 43.7
An. 6.30am 1380 12 noon 1425 9pm 1580
bar. 6.30am 28.525 12 noon 28.455 9pm 28.310
att. 6.30am 44.5 12 noon 76 9pm 63
swing 7 am 56.5 12 noon 79.5 9pm 64
[margin notes] allumba atrinrita
Left camp 7.25. Sand hills with thick woods of desert oaks. to Deep Well 9am. Native name Allumba atrinrita in reference to E. rostrata with remarkable smooth swollen boles. Stayed here till 1.30. On for 16 miles over hard country. Sand hills with belts of desert oaks and occasional patches of mulga. Ooraminna (Edith) range in distance. Camp at 6. Horses very tired: selves ditto. Heavy lightning after dusk to S. & W. Heaps of rungern which women had been winnowing. Husks in pile by side. Camped on flat amongst mulga. sand hills all round. feed good. Completely, thank goodness, out of desert sandstone. Currajong tree on sand hills.

April 21.
Camp 21. Ooraminna Rock Hole

Terr. Min. 40
An. 7am 1575 3pm 1750 9pm 1700
bar. 7am 8.240 3pm 28.140 9pm 28.190
att 7am 44.5 3pm 73 9pm 59.5
swing 7am 50 3pm 73.5 9pm 62
Left camp 7.25. Over sand hills & flats to base of Range. Over Pinch & through Hells Gates to North side of Range. Ran along flats. Turned S. to waterhole. Camped near to entrance of gorge. Sent horses up to water & followed. Reached camp 12.15. Aft. writing in shade of gum trees. Few natives about 6 or 8.

Camp 22.
April 22 Old Engwurra Ground A.G.

Terr. Min. 43.7
an. 7am 1700 9pm 1725
bar. 7am 28.190 9pm 28.165
att. 7am 48 9pm 59.5
swing 7am 52 9pm 61
Left camp 7.35. Travelled N. through Range. Only saw 2

Page 34

kangaroos. Road good in parts very sandy in others. Camped for dinner 12.30. On again at 2. Reached Heavitree 4: Came on through gap to township. All of Acacia scrub destroyed by drought. also old scrub which used to hide Engwurra Ground. Camped on latter. Mefr[--] Moore, Harris & Supple came down in evening.

Camp 22.April 23 A.G.

Went up to station in morning. Looked over stores. Called on Mrs Bradshaw. Dined in mess room. At noon the older men in camp – 12 – painted & came up as a formal deputation of welcome. Photod. three of them full face & side face. Developed photos in evening.
Mail from S. came in 8.30pm
Terr. Min. 39
An. 9am 1750 3pm 1825 9pm ----
bar. “ ” 28.145 3pm 28.062 9pm ----
att. “ “ ---- 3pm 79 9pm ----
swing “ ---- 3pm 70 9pm 56

Camp 22. April 24 A.G.

Terr. Min. 43
An. 9am 1810
bar. 9am 28.070
swing 9am 56
Away at night time
Station after breakfast. Preparing photo material etc. Down to camp at 11. Photod. piccaninies & distant view station. Writing journal etc in aft. Evening developing plates & late on Ariltha
[margin notes] Ariltha

Camp 22. April 25 A.G.

Night in camp with natives. 2 boys operation of ariltha Ceremonies. Achilpa of Arapera. Nurtunja with churinga. Added to loot. Jim & Warwick acted as Pininga. Back to camp about 8am.
Terr. Min. not taken
An 9am 1850 9pm 1945
bar. “ “ 28.035 9pm 27.950
att “ “ 66.2 9pm 66.2
swing “ “ 58 ----
Developing plates of Arlitha but as these had to be taken before sunrise they are very little good. Writing for mail & diary rest of day.

Page 36

Camp 22. April 26 A.G.

Getting cinematograph ready. writing for mail & ms. for “Leader”
Terr. Min. 32
An 9am 1810 9pm 1875
bar. 9am 28.070 “ 28.010
att “ 59.5 “ 62.5
swing “ 58 “ 59

Camp 22.
April 27th A.G.

Terr. Min. 29
An 9am 1800 9pm 1875
bar. “ “ 28.090 “ “ 28.010
att “ 61.5 “ “ 62.5
swing “ 65 “ “ 59
[margin notes] Tchitchnigalla
Writing in morning for mail, also Leader ms. In aft. Tchichnigalla. Cinematograph. Developing in evening.

Camp 22.
April 28th A.G.

Terr. Min. 24.2
An. 9am 1800 9pm 1800
bar. 9am 28.090 9pm 28.090
att 9am 61.5 9pm 61.5
swing 9am 65 9pm 57
Writing in morning. Tchichnigalla in aft. Cinematograph. Developing & writing in evening.

Camp 22.
April 29th A.G.

Terr. Min. 24.3
An 9am 1770 9pm 1775
bar. 9am 28.125 9pm 28.100
att 9am 60 9pm 51
swing 9am 57 9pm 62
Mail for South left at 1pm. Finished off mail in morning. Tchichnigalla in aft. Cinematograph. Telegram from Moonta announcing arrival of Spencer Gillen.

Camp 22

Camp 22.
April 30th A.G.

Terr. Min. 26.5
An 9am - 1660 3pm 1760 9pm 1740
bar. 9am - 28.230 3pm 28.130 9pm 28.150
att 9am - 62.5 3pm 66.7 9pm 61.2
swing 9am - 59.5 3pm 73.7 9pm 53
Mending & fixing up Cinematograph in morning. Printing photos etc. Closing scene of Tchichnigalla in aft. photod.

Page 38

Evening finish off Tchichnigalla. Latter belongs to Unjiamba group hence designs painted [margin notes] Close of Tchitchnigalla wurley etc.
on backs of men are of this totem. Wurley built = Wah-patilla inhabited in Alchuringa by man of Saltwater country whose name was Chilicherpa. He lived quite alone & walked about looking for his tucker & on returning one day found that a strange mob had assembled near to his wurley. He objected to anyone coming & tried to spear them. They wanted to capture but not kill him & wanted him to stay with them & to induce him to do so burnt his wurley. This represented in final scene in which man decorated with undattha & armed with a long spear danced. Finally women ordered away & wurley burnt down. Corobborree now belongs to group of Arunta who received it from the Ilpirra.

Camp 22.
May 1 A.G.

These are records of May 2
{ Terr. Min. 29
{An 9am 1765 3pm 1820 9pm 1800
{bar. 9am 28.125 3 “ 28.062 9 “ 28.085
{att 9am 61 3 “ 69 9 “ 61.5
{swing 9am 63 3 “ 76 9 “ 58

[margin notes] Quab Irritcha
Morning photographic work fixing up Cinematograph etc. Aft. Quab. Irritcha of Undulia ^Cinemat. very short ceremony. Single performer representing man eaglehawk avoiding being killed. Dlpd. photos till tea. Mr Bognor came in from Hermannsburg. Printing & writing in evening.

Camp 22.
May 2 A.G.

These are records of May 1
{ Terr. Min. 29
{An 9am 1690 3pm 1780 9pm 1775
{bar. 9 “ 28.200 3 “ 28.110 9 “ 28.115
{att 9 “ 60 3 “ 67.5 9 “ 63
{swing 9 “ 62.5 3 “ 70.5 9 “ 63.5

[margin notes: quab irrunt. irritcha]

Up before sunrise. Station 7.50. At 9am Quab. Irruntirina Irritcha (as at Engwura) Cinemat. Film not taken up on spool wound back inside machine and had to cut & rewind. Rest of day developing & printing etc. Old Charlie came in with Sambo. Comet in W. by SW visible at 7.

Page 40

Camp 22.
May 3 A.G.

Terr. Min. 33.5
An 9am 1750 3pm 1825 9pm 1760
bar. 9 “ 28.145 3 “ 28.060 9 “ 28.110
att. 9 “ 65 3 “ 72 9 “ 62
swing 9 “ 68.5 3 “ 79.5 9 “ 65
Morning printing. making enlarging apparatus. Aft. Quabara Akakia of Illiunpa (cinemat). Evening Illionpa.

Camp 22.
May 4 A.G.

Terr. Min. 36.2
An 9am 1770 9pm 1800
bar. - 28.125 9 - 28. 090
att - 65.5 9 - 70
swing - 68 9 - 66

[margin notes] Quab udniringita
(1) Quab Udnir. (Urangara) of Untherqua
[annotation on 1st sketch] -tracks of udningita
-large circles ä ipa seed (eremphila on wh. grub feeds) -small circles eggs. [annotations on 2nd sketch] Old Charlie performer, carried small pitchis
(2) Quab unchalka of Adnuringa. Old Oknirabata performer representing maegwa. Crouched over shield representing maegwa laying eggs on bush. Fluttered like maegwa trying to fly.
-large circles unchalka bush on wh. unchalka lives
-small circles udniringita bush on wh. lays eggs
[annotations on 3rd sketch] Shield = churinga alkurta
Two performances held closely one after the other and at short distance away. Whole performance very solemn.
Dlpd. photos till 5. Tea in camp. Evening at station. Writing & wrapping up cinemat. films.

Camp 22.
May 5 A.G.

Terr. Min. 38.5
An 9am 1750 9pm 1805
bar. 9 “ 28.135 9pm 20. 075 x
att 9 “ 64 9pm 63
sw 9 “ 62 9pm 67.5

[margin notes] Sun quab
Morning enlarging. Mr McFeat came down to camp to breakfast. Not a success – flies too mach. Aft. Quab. Okerka of Urapailla. One man carried Nurtunja which represented Unjiamba. Other man had disc –navel – suns rays [annotations on sketch]
Walikntruna Cinemat.
[margin notes] names of natives
Sun woman Okerta jumped up close to Urapailla^ in Unjiamba country/ Had boy. Fred’s mothers mother was sun totem. Fred’s names (1) when boy Illparlarinnia (2) later & usual name Urapuraparinia (3) Churinga name Aläj-māāka. Totem unjiamba. Aläj-mäaka = name of head of flowers of unjiamba.

Page 42

Printing photos all morning. Quab in aft. Illionpa in evening. Evening writing. Camp 8.45.

Camp 22.
May 6. A.G.

Terr. Min. 37.7
An 9am 1770 9pm 1800
bar. - 28.150 9pm 28.085
att - 65 9pm 64
swing - 67.7 9pm 68
Enlarging in morning. Illionpa in aft. Giving of Okania. man laid down as if asleep & Fred approached and touched toe. Evening writing.

Camp 22.
May 7 A.G.

Terr. min. 36.5
An 9am 1750 3pm 1850 9pm 1810
bar 9am 28.140 3pm 28.040 9 “ 28.070
att 9 “ 63 3pm 76.2 9 “ 72
swing 9 “ 68 3pm 84.5 9 “ 65.5
Morning enlarging. Aft. also 8am – 4.45pm. Mr Macmillan in from Bond Springs. Mail came in day early.
Evening writing.

Camp 22.
May 8 A.G.

Terr. min. 38.1
An 9am 1825 3pm 1950 9pm 1850
bar. 9 “ 28.060 3 “ 28.180 9pm 28.040
att 9 “ 70 3 “ 75 9pm 73
swing 9 “ 70 3 “ 86 9pm 70.1

[margin notes] Tradition of heaped stones near to Undulia passers by throw sticks on heap
Note with regard to heaped stones near Undulia. In Alchuringa, 2 Irritcha men eat a large number of Irritcha men women & children filling themselves very full. Became sick. Vomited up everything. Vomit represented by heap of stones at spot 1 mile north of Undulia = Ulk ut-tha. Here Arungquiltha sprung up. Stones covered with twigs. Sticks on stones to hide them & prevent Arungquiltha coming out. If exposed would cause sickness. In some cases men have been sick after seeing them and have thrown up livers. Every individual passing by – men, women & children must throw stick on heap. Old man Peter = reincarnation of one of the alcheringa men, others dead.

Page 44

Camp 22.
May 8 A.G. (cont)

[margin note] Diamentina native rain ceremony
Notes from Mr Fitz. Undulia (1) Native of Diamentina district.
A woman is chosen with whom a number of men have intercourse. Semen collected in pitchi called pirra. Two oval stones size of hens eggs placed in pitchi & smeared over. One man who appeared to be the leader was also smeared over. Poured first on head then rubbed all over with it. He then went by himself & buried the two stones by side of a waterhole. Made camp close by & stayed there alone till rains came. Could not hold communication during this time with anyone.
[margin note] Making ducks lay
The old man had the stones with him and put them in pirra. (2) Making ducks lay. All men were painted up with swan’s down. Vertical line down body with trans. lines on ribs and arms. Large wurley about 20-25ft. diam with door 4 ft high. One old man who alone has tuft of feather in hair went in on hands & knees & knelt thus with head resting on floor. While this going on natives outside sing but cease when he is inside & old man alone sings in low tone. This is signal for all to enter wurley. One man advance to old man who still kneeling passes him a stone 4 in. long x 1¼ at large end -tapering to the other end. Old man stops singing others resume. Stone then passed into old man’s rectum by individual who took it from him. All file out save old man and take up position few yards from wurley door where the boomerang ^men/ dig hole 18 in. deep into wh. leaves & sticks are put. Old man then comes out of wurley & squatting drops stone into hole wh. is then covered to height of 4 ft with bushes. Men all left & ceremony appeared to be complete.
Enlarging photos 8-2. In aft. Echunpa ceremony. Two old men & thippa thippa as at Engwura. Zig zagged all about out of field of cinemat.

Page 45

Welcoming dance in general chapter

Page 46

Camp 22.
May 9 A.G.

Terr. min. 43.7
An 9am 1800 9pm 1780
bar. 9am 28.085 9pm 28.100
att 9 “ 65 9pm 69
swing 9 “ 74 9pm 65

[margin note] Welcoming dance
Enlarging in morning. Just at midday mob from Henbury came in. Sat down till invited. Then came along & on beyond station mob on to flat where joined by local mob & dance took place (photos). Then 2 mobs separated. Old man collected flaked sticks from heads & waist bands of visitors & then handed them to old Alatunja who bound[?] them. After pause three or four members of resident mob went out and began dancing about & from distance threw boomerang towards visiting mob challenging one man who jumped up and threw boomerang towards them. Two men embraced then sat down. 3 local men were Umbitchana & man from S. was same. Accused brother of not having cut himself properly when his father in law (Panunga man) died of Echumba totem belonging to Bond Springs. Charlie went out & cut himself. Same performer repeated twice with cutting of visiting mbitchana man. Then pause & then sons. (1) Harry (local) called out another man if visiting to fight accusing him of having killed his brother some years ago. Man stood up & turned aside 2 boomerangs the 3rd hiting his arm after shattering his shield. Old men then stopped fight. (2) Jack (local) challenged another man of having slept with his lubra (woman taken at Atnunja party some years ago). Boomerangs thrown by both.
(3) Sam accused a Southern man of having killed his lubra. Big growl.
(4) Sam accused local muliganuka of not having cleared out when Old man Tom (Ikuntera) died & of not having stopped away till grass grown on his grave. Serious growl but gradually quietened down & Muliganuka cleared out. This took up all aft. Evening writing & writing.

Page 48

Camp 22.
May 10 A.G

Terr. min. 36
An 9pm 1730 9pm 1740
bar. 9 “ 28.160 9 “ 28.160
att. 9 “ 63 9 “ 66
swing 9 “ 61 9 “ 59

Morning fixing up photo material & writing & cleaning up den a little. Diary till dinner. aft. ceremonies.
[margin notes] got nurtunja
(1) Quab Achilpa Atnuria Ungaraminia. Nurtunja carried along back in hair belt. Nurtunja represented Kauaua belonging to the alchuringa man. Wahkutnima (cinemat).
[margin notes] Echunpa man “close up” Anadana
(2) Quab Echunpa of Arialla (Temple bar). Two men who sat down at Temple bar & carried Churinga on heads. Eat Echunpa & other lizards a& also Anadana (cinemat).
Sambo (Echunpa) says that he is Echunpa but ‘close up’ Anadana because in alchuringa a mob of Anadana men came op to when he sat down and performed ceremonies trying to change him to an Anadana man but he could not be changed but in consequence of this is associated with the Anadana totem. Does not eat anadana when it is green but will eat it when dry.

[margin note] Avenging party Kiria urkna
Walyrinia came back bringing with him Kiria urkna made from hair of his dead brother. Summoned men placed them sitting & taking each man in turn his penis in their hands & had it rubbed. This is called Pura iriipurinnia. After all men present had done this he took kiria urkua from his arm pit & pressed it against stomach of each man = kirianurkna illura illirima. idea is to make them strong in war & pledge them to take part in atninga which was then organized to avenge his brother’s death. Evening in camp making flaked stickes & singing over them.

Camp 22.
May 11 A.G.

Ter min 28.2
An 9am 1655 3pm 1755 9pm 1695
bar. 9am 28.225 3 “ 18.127 9 “ 28.200
att. 9 “ 61 3 “ 66 9 “ 64
swing 9 “ 59 3 “ 70.1 9 “ 57
Morning writing diary till 10. Men repetition of welcoming dance. Mulyanuka (‘Charlie Coopers’) mob came up the creek dancing. Then

Page 50

on to flat & danced - joined by Nakrakia. Cinemat last 50 feet of this. Developed plates till dinner. In aft. photos of piccanninies writing afterwards. Evening writing for mail.

Camp 22.
May 12 A.G.

Terr. min. 25.2
An 1650 9pm 1708
bar. 28.250 9pm 28.180
att. 52.7 9pm 63
swing 55.1 9pm 58

[margin note] Atninga dance
Morning Atninga innterrina on flat behind station. Party headed by blood brothers (Panunga) of dead man came up creek leader every now & then dancing round them and pretending to spear man. Sat down in bend of creek gradually joined by others. Then on to flat. (1) Spear dance (2) boomerang dance. Then all sat down while leader with kiria urkna went to each man in turn rubbing his stomach & penis with kiria and finally putting one end of kiria in each mans mouth other in pit of stomach sat down on the haunches of each man and embraced him. While this going on other Panunga men got up and taking hold of hands of other men rubbed them up & down on his own thighs. Then after pause each man opened veins in penis and they squirted blood over each other’s thighs.
[margin note] blood letting
Then all spears held up & bunched together. Two old men held them and rattled them while all others danced around with boomerangs behind head. Suddenly spears let fall & all men fell down and then dead silence. In aft. this falling down repeated. Then party went off.

Camp 22.
May 13 A.G.

Terr. min. 27
an 9am 1670 9pm 1730
bar. 9 28.225 9 “ 28.160
att. 9 60 9 “ 65
swing 9 63 9 “ 64

Morning writing for mail. Packed up cinemat. film & sent them (except two) to Sir C. Todd. Enlarging in aft. Writing story evening.

Page 52

Camp 22.
May 14 A.G.

Terr. min. 30.7
an 9am 1700 3pm 1790 9pm 1750
bar. 9 “ 28.200 3 “ 28.100 9pm 28.140
att. 9 “ 58 3 “ 69 9pm 67
swing 9 “ 61 3 “ 79 9pm 56

Station before 8. Enlarging & getting photos ready for ‘Age’. Printing till 3pm. Diary. Gillen went out to get photos of hills around. Chance brought wagon up to station.

Camp 22.
May 15 A.G.

Terr. min. 30.2
an 9am 1750 9pm 1765
bar. 9 28.140 9pm 28.125
att. 9 64 9pm 66.5
swing 9 63 9pm 64

Writing all morning. G & McFeut went to Emily Gap to photo back at 7pm. Dvlpng photos. Labelling negatives all aft. & evening. Wire for Sir C. Todd saying cinematos. fairly successful.

Camp 22.
May 16 A.G.

Terr. min. 28.2
An 9am 1750 9pm 1800
bar. 9 “ 28.150 9 “ 28.090
att. 9 “ 59 9 “ 65
swing 9 “ 61.2 9 “ 57

Labelling & packing up all morning. Aft writing. Cowle came in with Mr Fitz

Camp 22.
May 17 A.G.

Terr. min. 27
an 9am 1750 9pm 1825
bar. 9 “ 28.100 9 “ 28.062
att. 9 “ 57 9 66.2
swing 9 “ 58 9 58

“Age” writing most of day.
Tom Hanley came 3.30

Camp 22.
May 18 A.G.

Terr. min. 28.5
An 9am 1805 9pm 1875
bar. 9 “ 28.075 9pm 28.112
att. 9 “ 58 9pm 61.8
swing 9 “ 64 9pm 68

Writing at intervals all day. Cowle & Mr. Fitz at 12. Gillen went to horse sale in aft. Eclipse of sun in aft. Packing up nurtunjas in aft. Cowle & Fitz in again in evening 7.30 Talk till 9.30.

Page 53

[Note handwritten into Journal by Geoff Walker in 1981] Apparently this date is incorrect. It should be May 22nd. See Spencer's (Family) Journal 1901. No.3 Page 41-44 (Box 20)
G. Walker 28-11-1981

Page 54

Camp 22.
May 19 A.G.

Terr. min. 39.5
an 9am 1820 9pm 1875
bar. 9am 20.070 9pm 28.112
att. 9am 64 9pm 61.8
swing 9am 67.5 9pm 68

Most of morning toning photos. Odd intervals writing. Put two young Cockatoo parrots in forml. Aft. writing. Cowle came up and left at 3.30.

Camp 22.
May 20 A.G.

Terr. min. 38
An 9am 1850 9pm 1860
bar. 9 9pm 20.025
att. 9 “ 65 9pm 73
swing 9 “ 68 9pm 67.5

Packed up my negatives. Chance made box for cinematograph. Then writing all day at intervals.

Camp 22.
May 21 A.G.

Terr. min. 45
An 9am 1752 9pm 1760
bar. 9am 28.133 9pm 28.125
att. 9am 67 9pm 69
swing 9am 62 9pm 61.5

Moved up to station from camp. Packing up wagon in morning. Writing for ‘Age’ in aft. Evening writing. Mail came in at 3. Camp behind station very uncomfortable.

Camp 22.
May 21 A.G.

Terr. min. 44
An 9am 1730 9pm 1770
bar. 9am 28.160 9pm 28.125
att. 9am 63 9pm 63
swing 9am 57 9pm 59

[margin notes] return of Atninga
Curious fog over hills which lasted till well after sunrise. Chance started 9.30am 2 goo horse in lead. Writing in morning. Atninga returned at 3pm. Came down Todd R for N. Old woman danced in front. Then on to men’s camp old woman still dancing & gesticulating. Then after pause she & another woman tested shields of Immirinja the other standing quiet. Then latter went out to side & talked to old men even telling them what had taken place. Then old men (Solomon & Jack) tested

Page 56

shields of immirinja who moved out by twos & threes & ran round in a circle toopposite camp. Some displeasure amongst older men because the party had killed (younger men while older men were away) the old father of the man they were in search of. Excuse was that this man had known of his sons going kurdaitcha to kill Sam’s uriawa & had not stopped him doing so.

Camp 22.
May 23 A.G.

Terr. min. 31.5
an 9am 1745 9pm 1780
bar. 9 - 1745 9pm 28.100
att. 9 - 58 9pm 67
swing 9 - 53.5 9pm 57.5

Morning writing diary & finishing up [?] for Age. Printing atninga etc. Aft writing.

Camp 22.
May 24 A.G.

Terr. min. 29
an 9am 1800 9pm 1890
bar. 9am 28.090 9pm 28.00
att. 9am 57.5 9pm 65.5
swing 9am 56 9pm 57

Writing diary & letter all day. Arranging for departure.

Camp 23.
May 25 Bond Springs

Early morning packing up. Writing for mail. Left A.S. 1pm with Lang and Lubbock. Over Ranges. Track very rough. Got safely over Pinch. Past Wigly & Collier Crks. Turned off E. to Bond Springs – 14 miles. Mr McMillan. Camped for night by buggy. Smashed Terr min thermometer. Got one more of Greg Robertson’s horses and sent Baluta back to McFeat. Got man for Mr Henderson to go up to Catherine.

Camp 24.
May 26 Burt Well

an 9am 2275 9pm 2230
bar. 9am 27.650 9pm 27.650
att. 9am 55.7 9pm 56.7
swing 9am 52 9pm 57

Start 8 am. along by side of small Crk & W. H. Then over saddle with view of plains & away to Strangways Ranges. Mt Hay &

Page 58

west MacDonnells. All day over mulga flats. At 8 miles old hut by side of W. H. very nearly dried up. Halted for dinner at 15 miles. Put in Tylor & Frazer and went across Harry Crk to Burnt Well where Found Chance and Jim safe. Camped at 3.15. 28 miles. (all there). Cool S.E. breeze all day. Cold in morning till 10.

Camp 25.
Connors Well May 27

an 8am 2160 3pm 2000 9pm 1975
bar. 8am 27.710 3pm 27.885 9pm 27.900
att. 8am 47 3pm 61.7 9pm 49
swing 8am 47.5 3pm 63.2 9pm 41.5

Left camp 8.50. Horses strayed wondered back 14 miles. G & S came on with Todd and Little Jack. Lively to start with. Struck line close to Burt Well & along by this all day. Nothing but Mulga scrub with few hakes & A. salicina. Mulga stumps & meridurial [?] ant hills a nuisance. Porcupine grass. Near to Connors Well just in front of mob of Camels (in charge of Ryan) Todd turned vicious and tried to bolt into scrub. Changed his name to ‘the Devil’. Sent letters S. G. Ryan. Reached camp 2.50 – 24 miles. Warwick came in 4pm. Left Chance about noon. Made break wind & small camp. Tucker not to abundant. On road passed Strangways Range 10 miles to E. Escarpment cut on S. face slope on N. Hass Range ahead. Drew water for horses etc. Chance left camp 1.5 Got to within about 7 miles of Connors Well at 7.5.

Camp 25.
Connors Well May 28

Att. Them. 8am 29
an 9am 1895 3pm 2005 9pm 1908
bar. 9am 28.00 3pm 27.875 9pm 27.960
att. 9am 46 3pm 63.5 9pm 48.5
swing 9am 49 3pm 61 9pm 51

Waited all day for Chance. Sent Warwick back with letter to Chance at 4.45. Returned 6.45 Horses out all day. Jim had them 5.25 only got 3 in. Chance was coming up when the rest were brought in. Arrived at 9.30 with 6 horses. 2 still out.

Page 60

Camp 26
Near gap in Hanns Range . May 29

Att. 7.30am 29.5
An 9am 1920 9pm 2150
bar. 9am 27.970 9pm 27.730
att. 9am 52 9pm 48
swing 9am 49 9pm 52

Jim started off soon after sunrise in search of 2 lost horses which had gone back towards Burnt & then out West. G. & S started after dinner at 1pm. Travelled along line. Stumps & ant mounds as usual. Country awfully desolate. Very poor porcupine & for miles scarcely a shrub. To S. E. of us Strangways and to N. Hanns Range. Ent for 13 miles & camped just to S of Gap in Range in good batch of mulga scrub. Made big fire. Chance came in 8.30. At 9 Jim rode in. close good days work – not less than 60 mile. got 2 horses. Camp very picturesque at night. Boys with 3 fires.

Camp 27.
May 30 Ryans Well

Att. 8am 32
An 8.30am 2100 9pm 2140
bar. 8.30 “ 27.780 9pm 27.755
att. 8.30 “ 51 9pm 48
swing 8.30 “ 51 9pm 51

Left camp 8.55. Through gap. Callitris on hills. Native well. Beyond gap country much better. Plenty of salt & cotton bush. food all the way to Ryan’s Well. Camp 10.55 Chance came in 12. After dinner arranging things on wagon – filling tank – skinning Galah etc. Got onto Alice in aft. & sent messages through.

Camp 28.
Woodford R. Crossing May 31

Att. 6am 29
An 9am 2150 9pm 1875
bar. 9am 27.730 9pm 28.012
att. 9am 29.5 9pm 52.5
swing 9am 34 9pm 58

Up at 4am owing to mistake in Gillens 2nd hand pawnbrokers watch. Had a few new horses. cold cheerless waiting. At day break boys went off after horses which had somewhat stayed. Started with Little Jack & Wallis

Page 62

at 8.20. Usual scrub but now and again small bean tree (Erythrina vespertilis). Hill Range to East with Mt Wells & further on Mt. Boothby. Dutchman stern[?] great rounded bosre[?] of rock. W.H.[?] on their hills. Track rose through broad low gap with Mt. Wells to W & Mt Glaisher to E. Then over plains with porcupine. Hakea Mulga. A. salicina (in flower) to Prowse’s Gap. View to N. over plains to Central Mt. Stuart (little S.E. of N.) & Central Mt. Winnecke to N. E. At 16 miles Boothby Shackle in middle of desolate plain. On 5 miles to Mulgas. ½ mile before then halted 40 minutes (at 1.30) for dinner. Sent Warwick on ahead to dig hole at soakage in Woodforde. Country very good after passing Mulga. Open plain with rich pan. Away to W. Woodford River with Crow Nest W.H. T. L. straight as a die for 12 miles in to Woodford crossing. Camped little to W. of this. Soakage in bed. Camp at 5.20. 32 miles. Frazer & Tylor in aft. Adelaide horses appear to be picking up a little. Chance came on to within about 10 miles of our camp.

Camp 28.
Woodforde River June 1

Att. 7am 29.5
An 9am 1875 3pm 1865
bar. 9am 28.012 3pm 28.125
att. 9am 64 3pm 89.5
swing 9am 56 3pm 70.5

Quite day in camp. Chance came in 11.30. Writing diaries, journal & rifling in aft. Jim shot Turkey.

Camp 29.
Teatree Well & Woodforde River June 2

Att. 6.30am 29.7
An 9am -1880 3pm 1830 9pm 1815
bar. 9 “ -28.005 3pm 28.00 9pm 28.055
att. 9 “ -41 3pm 76 9pm 52
swing 9 “ -43.5 3pm 72.7 9pm 52

Left camp 8.20. Country poor with Porcupine. Saw Central Mt. Stuart to N. Camp 12.30 only saw 2 turkeys en route.

Page 64

Camp 30.
Bullocky Camp Hanson River 4 miles W. of Central Mt. Stuart. June 3

At. 7.30am 29.7
An 8am 1865 3pm 1800 9pm 1800
bar. “” 28.020 3pm 20.080 9pm 28.080
att. “” 38(on ground) 3pm 78 (in shade) 9pm 58 (on table)
swing “” 41.5 3pm 75 9pm 62.5 9pm 62.5

Left camp 8.20. Along T. L. with C.Mt.S. to N. after 12 miles round to W. of line. Struck Hanson & followed this up to Bullocky Camp close by River on open porcupine plain with thin scrub. Camp 12.45. Chance came in 3.45. Skinning 2 pigeons. Flies bad.

Camp 31.
Hanson Well (8 mile well) June 4

Att. 7.30am 38 on ground
An 9am 1800 3pm 1755 9pm 1720
bar. “” 28.080 3pm 28.135 9pm 28.175
att. “” 58(in sun) 3pm 959(sun) 9pm 72
swing “” 53 3pm 86 9pm 71

Horses strayed. Left camp 9.10. Central Mt Stuart to W. Gradually drew beyond this. Road heavy. Level plain with unusual scrub. No life of any kind. Along by side of Hanson all day - open plain at end to Hanson Well (17 miles) To W. of T. L. all day. Camp 1.45 Chance 3.45 Strong N. W. wind & dust & flies abominable. Went along creek in aft. no life. Drosera growing well. Made good sized soakage in Crk bed. Clouds came up short showers but not more than few heavy drops. Cloudy night

Camp 32.
Stirling River near base of Foster Range June 5

Att. 6.30am 60
An 8.15am 1630 9pm 1700
bar. “” 28.270 9pm 28.190
alt. “” 61 9pm 60.2
swing “” 63 9pm 58

Night uncomfortably warm till about 1am when wind changed to S. E. but fell again. Started 9.20. Along T. L. then to E. of this. Cotton and salt bush on flats. Few bean trees. Crossed open flat then over 3 sand hills in succession. Stirling Swamp. View of Cent. Mt Stuart to S. Tea Tree

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scrub on one flat between some hills. On to Stirling Station. Miserable place by side of Crk. . W. Abbott. Only 1 native with native woman & piccaninny grinding seed. On between hills forming wide amphitheatre to W. bank of Stirling. Camped 1.45 by W. H. found clear water not a sign of life except few beetles & spiders under stones and Telphusa transverra in burrows. No sign of worms though black soil. W. H. in conglomerate. Good Bean tree with seeds by W. H.

Camp 33
Barrow Creek Station. June 6

Att. 7am 46
An 8.20am 1675 9pm 1730
ba 8.20am 28.225 9pm 28.160
att. “ “ 52 9pm 63
swing “ “ 53 9pm 63.5

Left camp 8.30 Track gradual rise up Foster Range. View to S. with Mt Stuart. Trees Hakea (red flower) few mulgas & stunted gums. Down steep decline into valley then along valley to W. turned E. out onto plain running on to base of hills (flat topped) at B. K. Station 1.10 (real times 12.35). Tree grave of child in aft. buried in pitchi in mulga. Chance 3.30 (real time). Put up tent close to station.

Camp 33.
B.K. June 7

Att. 7.3 51
An 9am 1725 9pm 1720
bar. “ “ 28.165 9pm 28.125
att. “ “ 66 9pm 73 (in room)
swing “ “ 61 9pm 71

Morning unpacking things getting photo material ready, writing. Getting in loot. Goodly collection of shields spears pitchis etc. few churinga. Attached old man Tungalla to staff. Sent out native to bring others in. Got during day 13 boomerangs, 7 stone knives, 7 Churinga, 6 knouts, 3 aprons, 2 nose bones, 2 adzes, 3 winning pitchis, 8 shields, 15 pitchis various, 1 boat shaped. 4 long spears, 3 fighting clubs, 3 human hair girdles, 20 headrings,

Page 67 [facing page]

June 8
Fair supply animals – nothing special. Amphibolurus reticulatus, H. lesuerii, Egernia whitei – self coloured no stripes. Gipundactylus Gehyra variegata, Heteronota bynoei, Hornera pulchella(?). snakes 2 sp. D. geoffroyi, Conilurus sp., Antechinomys laniger (4 ♂), senpuis. centipedes. Beetles. Kingfisher (♀), Varanus gilleni

Page 67 [facing page]

June 8
Fair supply animals – nothing special. Amphibolurus reticulatus, H. lesuerii, Egernia whitei – self coloured no stripes. Gipundactylus Gehyra variegata, Heteronota bynoei, Hornera pulchella(?). snakes 2 sp. D. geoffroyi, Conilurus sp., Antechinomys laniger (4 ♂), senpuis. centipedes. Beetles. Kingfisher (♀), Varanus gilleni

Page 68

Aft. getting ready photo material. Corking bottles etc. Evening deping photos. Amongst animals Hornera pulchella (?) Conilum sp. V. gilleni, Antechinomys laniger etc.

Camp 33.
Barrow Creek June 8

Att. 7.30am 63
An 9am 1700 9pm 1720
bar. --- 28.195 --- 28.195
att. --- 73 --- 75.5
swing --- 73.5 --- 61.5

Morning organising material then interview with Tungalla
[sketch of genealogy]

♂ Umbitchana (okerta)
♀ Appungerta (emu)
♀ Thungalla/grass seed -------♂ (Tungala) Thungalla (grass seed) ------♂ Thungalla (achilpa)
♀ uknaria Illpirra luka totem not known
no children.

Mother came from Emu country. Taylor Crossing. Conceived Thungalla & his sister along grass seed country. Another younger son along achilpa country. The two first were also born in grass seed country. Achilpa son born in Emu country.
[margin note] See later for connection. See later see p148
Tungalla eats his totem freely & always and can partake of any other food (subject to restrictions applying to age but he is now an old man). If however Tungalla wants to eat kangaroo in kangaroo country he must first of all ask the kangaroo men if he may otherwise they would growl. Suppose another man (not from seed totem) came and took grass seed in Tungalla’s country without asking him then he would kill him.
A kangaroo man eats the best part of the beast tail & legs and gives skinny parts to lubras.
Achilpa man does not ‘all day’ eat achilpa (as in Arunta Achilpa gives rise to sores and can only be eaten by old men). If pass seed man kills emu even in emu country he gives it to Emu men otherwise they would ‘poison’ Emu & he would die. Ikuntera gives Churinga of his own totem to his own totem to his gammona who kills animal. Suppose former kangaroo then latter brings [sections of above crossed through]

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[margin note] see July 6
in the first kangaroo which he kills puts the Churinga on the top of it and gives it to his Ikuntera, who keeps the whole of it. The Churinga is returned to the gammona by the Ikuntera and afterwards the father hands over the bodies to the latter and only eats the guts himself. Does not let the old man see the guts. Tungalla got an illuta churinga for an emu man to whom it descended.

[following names linked by lines]

♂ Kumara (Rain)
♀ Kabbidge
♂ Purula (Rain)----------♂ Chulunpa (Rain)------------♀ Yam
♀ Panunga (Emu)

Chulnpa young man cannot eat (nor many other young men) Emu, snake, porcupine, Achilpa, Amperta, eagle hawk, Echunpa. would swell up if eat them. Old men cannot give these to young men. Eat them when turning grey.

[margin note] See later July 5
Burial. In the Alchuringa the black fellow when dead was put in a tree and came to life again after 3 days and walked about & was seen in camp. After a time a curlew ^Willaru man who was ulpmerka came away from the north and went away south. There he circumcised himself. He took the dead men from the trees and pushed them into a waterhole with his foot with the result that they did not come to life again.

[margin note] A young lubra is buried in a tree became sorry she dead & want her come up again. Not sorry about old woman so bury then in the ground strait away. Boy children buried in pitchi in tree. See later July 5

When a man is buried in a tree the Unkulla & Gammona look out at the grave. Anilka, achiriri & unkulla put body in tree. tree grave = qu-undārāra. An-udina or kna = grave in ground.
When a man dies hair cut off by unkulla & gammona who make it into hair girdle – wailia wailia. Only the unkulla & gammona carry the belt along atninga tc.
Etippina – okinchalannia. Akulcha = arm band.
[margin note] see later

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[margin note] See later July 5
Younger brother takes Churinga.
When his body is cut up (bones dislocated etc) this done only by unkulla. Achirri anillia & unkulla put them in grave no fat or anything is used from the body except the hair.
In the alchuringa the foreskin was always placed in the apera alchuringa. [margin note] see July 5 Nowadays the Purka man who carries the skin after the operation does so until it begins to smell offensively. Then he shows it to the boy who gives him hair string etc and then it is put in a cleft in any tree and then is a special relationship between the boy and this tree. It does not matter even if the tree tumbles down. Ullukuppera man first showed them how to circumcise.

Both man & woman have incisor knocked out Alkuri knock teeth out. Tooth thrown in direction of Alchuringa Country.

[margin note] if tree destroyed burn all natives up
Okerka arose (woman) in E. came afterwards to Allumba where is a big tree. This must not be destroyed or else the sun will burn all natives up. Everything on trees is Ekärnija. If a man killed and eat a possum on this tree it would burn up his guts. Afterwards she went back to east. Simply goes back along night time from east to west.

Moon. - Arilpa. A big old man. In the Alchuringa sat down at Uruta a big hill near Barrow Crk. Came up along of N.E. & when he got to Uruta said he was sorry he had come & went back again. The moon seen at B.K. is another one. A stone sprang up where the old man sat down. Can still see the old man in the moon carrying big stone tomahawk.
[margin notes] Cent Mt. Stuart & Emu man
Moon man has a lubra away to W.
Central Mt. Stuart. Upmarkunja. An Erlia man from the W. named Ululkurrra ^(Bultharra) came up to the spot where he found a lot of Erlia men eating Erlia. He said why you no give um me Emu? Then they killed him and broke his back & the hill arose to mark the spot which is an Erlia Oknanikilla.

Page 74

[sketch of hills including Central Mt. Stuart] Ct. Mt. Stuart
A pinnacle shaped hill to S.W. of Cnt. Mt. Stuart is associated with Bellbird man Kupa- kupalapala an Akomara lived here always in the Alcheringa on the lookout for lubras. He was iturka. The hill represents him-^ is called all-at-thara. Man there now in shape of a huge penis between his lubra’s legs.

Points of Compass [sketch of ordinate points]
N Ai-irrira [N]
oknirringa oknirringa [NE]
E andigaraka [E]
Altank altanka [SE]
S undiarra [S]
aldurlinia engwurra [SW]
W Aldurla [W]
ai-irriaka ai-irriaka [NW]

Camp 33.
Barrow Creek June 9

Rain during night
An 9am 1625 9pm
bar. --- 28.275 ---
att. --- 67 (in room) ---
swing --- 60 ---

Rain all day till 6.30 sunset when stopped 1.10 in. till 9am at 12.30 46 pts more at 5pm 2 in altogether. Creek ran. Day spent writing notes and interviewing “Julia” & “Lillie”. Old woman brought in good V. gilleni.

[diagram of genealogy]

♂ Kumara. Rain
♀ Kabbidge, Rat
Chalumpa ♂ Rain-----------------♀ “Lillie” Purula Yam-----------------♀ quatcha
No Lubra ♂ Emu, Panunga ♂ Witchetty
\ \
♀ Appungerta, rain. no Children

[diagram of genealogy]

♂ uknaria (gum tree witchetty)
♀ Tungalla (Emu)
♂ Kabbidge-----------♀ “Julia” Kabbidge (Possum)----------♀ Kabbidge arumpa (sugar ant)
no lubra ♂ Kumara (poison snake ainchunpa) ♂ Urilitchana (A.G. native
totem, not known)

[margin note] Eating Restrictions, young women
Young woman cannot eat certain grass seeds. (Eat Etualta) Can’t eat acacia (old woman can) if young woman eat it stomach upset. Can eat Emu but not eggs or throat bad. Can’t eat turkey or eggs or

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[margin note] Eating restrictions women
swell up cheek. Can eat all kangaroo & wallaby. Can’t eat wild dog, bad throat. Can’t eat big snake, can small. if big throat bad. Can’t eat Echidna or ear swells up. Can’t eat Echunpa - or make them poor. Can eat small lizard. Can eat crow. Achilpa not eaten (until very old woman). Make head break over all sores. Can’t eat Eaglehawk – make um poor. Can’t eat umbi-umbi (kite) breasts not dvp. Can eat Podargus (Puluakna). Not eat amperta (big rat) or head swells up. Can eat Bandicoot. Can’t eat atnanga (Peragale lagotio). Can eat possum. Can eat witchetty. Eat Yam. Can’t eat fish or get bad legs.
[margin note] Teeth, Childbirth Food Restriction
Teeth. knocked out by Lillies Ertwali (husband’s father). Julias’ by anarcia (mother’s mother). Tooth thrown towards girls ‘country’. Childbirth etc. When enceinte can’t eat ‘porcupine’ or else piccanniny not come up quick. If eat possum piccanniny ‘hang on’. if atnunga (rat) no jump up quick. mother die. Not much water if eagle hawk - hang on. If carpet snake swell out behind. Can eat all bushy tuck out. Can’t eat eggs or child die inside. Same turkey.
When child about to be born the mother speaks to her arira elder sister and they first tell her father & mother & the husband. The two former go and camp by themselves for 2 days & do not speak to one another. Husband goes away for 3 days. Father & mother come back to lubra’s camp where is child former carrying small tree with which he touches lubras’ head thereby releasing her from ban of silence. The lubra then picks up the child in pitchi & hands it to her mother who then rubs it across her own stomach & then throws it up and down in the air ^(=pilcha). Then the mother embraces lubra from behind. Meanwhile the father of the child has left his hair girdle ^& bands etc piled in his own camp and out in the bush collects animals for food. The elder sisters of the lubra collect seeds etc and bring them to the lubra. Then the father of the child comes to the lubras

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[margin note] Husband told to come to lubras camp by his father.
[margin nore] Childbirth
camp he brings his food supply with him. He warms an Ameru at the fire & passes it backwards &forwards over the child. ^also paints black line above eyes and around navel. Then he takes this up hands it to the lubra and tells her to take it with the food which he has brought to her father & mother who eat it up. The seeds collected by the elder sisters are eaten by the lubra herself. If lubra suffers much at the birth arira sends for nania who makes a camp close by and sings till child born. Then the nania tells the husband of the birth. The navel string (chilla-pitchella) when it falls off is wrapped up and hung around the child’s neck. The mark above the eyes & the navel – network keep the child from crying.

Growth of breasts
Paternal grandfather sends a small pitchi containing string, fat, red ochre, Eagle hawk feathers, rat tails, charcoal. Nania (maternal grandmother mother) paints red ring around breasts and lines on chest. (see diagram)
[annotated sketch of upper torso and head of a female with body painting]
-alpita [on head band]
-eaglehawk [on head band]
-charcoal [across eyes]
-red ochre [across nose]
-neck band given by maternal grandfather
Nania sings all day long. Girl carries along pitchi always until breasts depd . Then breaks pitchi and throws it away. Keeps the string until milk comes into breasts when she gives it to her arira (elder sister)
Nose boring. done by Ertwali in hot weather (teeth knocked out during rain weather).
Magic among Kaitish women. Yam stick. When a lubra has a growl with another woman she takes her yam stick and sings over it in a quite spot. leaves it there. Brings it back again & has another growl: hits woman with it and latter then pines away and dies. Kangaroo and Emu bones made into pointing bones & sung over and pointed at enemy. These bones are also used to stab other women with in chest. Pulled out. Blood comes out and woman dies.

Page 80

[margin note] disposal of hair
Oknaninirra = oknanikilla
Hair. Woman’s hair given to husband’s mother’s brothers (Erlitchia). Julia (Kabbidge) given to Panurya man. Julia’s boys hair goes to Umbitchana man who is her unkullia. Erlitchia are mura to men and women. Nirarra = ekarinja.
[margin note] See p 344
Sub 344,
Warramunga Childbirth Lubra when child about to be born tells her Elder sister who comes (told by the man) husband walks away. Namini and father of child not talk till child born. Mother of lubra brings up bushy tuck out for latter. Husband collects honey (kulpa) and gives it to mother of lubra & his mother. Man gives string, spear-thrower. shield. boomerang, spear, pitchi, red ochre to his own & his wife’s father. When the husband returns to his lubras camp his finger is bitten by his own mother, wife’s mother & wife which releases him from ban of silence. If child not born the husband leaves his string belt etc at his camp. Atnitcharinga pointed sticks made by women in Warramunga. poison =waritia Thrown towards man make bad along stomach.
[margin note] pointing sticks of Warramunga

Camp 33. June 10 B.K.

An 9am 1600 9pm 1625
bar. --- 28.300 9pm 28.275
alt. --- 66.7 (in room) 9pm 70
swing --- 62.7 9pm 61.5

All day writing. Skinning birds. Getting things dry. Photoing results of flood. V. maculatus & V. acarthurus gilleni. Large ground spiders. Antechinomys. Horse strayed hence not got hold of Jim for Anthrops work except in aft. when got hold of arunta colour terms. Morning drawing up tables for Anthropometric work.

Page 82

June 11 Camp 33 B.K.

An 9am 1575 9pm 1575
bar. --- 28.325 9pm 28.325
alt. --- 62.5 (in room) 9pm 65
swing --- 58 9pm 56

[margin note] Uailia nailia [?]
Wailia nailia [?] (dead mans hair girdle) & “3-feathered” ornaments together – later worn woven in girdle round waist
[margin note] akuntilia
[sketch] Akuntilia made of whiskers of dead man and worn through kulchia
Arunta (Jim) Kaitish (Tungalla) Kaitish (woman)
1. at-thithika {induru-indurna inideru-undera
2. indi-indi {induru-indurna “ “
3. iltira altira altira
4. ulpa-ita-ita (ulpa = ochre) no name malabera
5. no name mulalpera-mulalpera
6. {at-thirka undila-undila {atwika – undatherka (grass = at-trika (when green,
(at-thirka = grass) achiperta when dry)
7. { “ “ { “ “ at-thirka at-thirka
8. { ” “ { “ “
9. urpulla urapulla (or urpulla) urapulla
9a. altira urapulla
10. urpulla urpulla or urapulla altira
11. An-nia An-nia aara pulla or urpulla urapulla
(blue grey ‘wad’)
12. no name no name amil amil
13. Close up urpulla urpulla urpulla
14. ilchilla (arilla ilchilla urpulla urpulla
= black hair)
15. close up ilchirra urpulla amil amil

[margin note] Arunta 10 oldminia oldmenia
[margin note] Intichinma Ertnatulunga Etc
Ertnatulunga = amoama allongalla = churinga Not eat anything near amoam/illongala or she dies
Intichinma = illitna-ihga Inlyulla makes grass reed Intich. Cleans up a space round Amoama/illonyalla. Take some churinga along camp. Paint himself with undattha etc. Sings undattha all day. When grass comes up makes big corroboree with churinga. Puts churinga back in Illnyalla. This quab is shown to all black fellows. After the ceremony of Intichinma has been performed & the grass seed begins to fall men & women of other totems (Emu, rat etc)

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[margin note] Intichinma
who are anakrakia to Tungulla go out and gather it. Then they give what they have gathered to Tungalla’s lubra who gives it to Tungalla.
[margin note] see July 6
The latter then in the presence of the men grinds up some of the grass seed, places some in his mouth turning his head round blows it out in all directions so as to make the seed come up everywhere. Then he says you need not bring any more up to me to go and eat all about.
[margin note] Eating a mans totem in latters country
An emu man coming into Tungalla’s country gathers seed takes it up to Tungalla and says I have been getting grass seed. Tungalla says – all right you eat him. If the Emu man were to eat without asking first asking Tungalla he would be very ill and die.
Head man of totem = ulqua (= alatunja)
[margin note] Magic
Magic arinigquiltha = it-tha
Woman’s magic (from Tungulla). Man goes out along bush & catches lubra when out hunting. The lubra tells her blackfellow who instructs her to make a point bone (of sharpened wallaby bone). She sings it all day and then puts it where blackfellow makes water. Then his penis rots and drops off. Old man now here who was punished in this way for the same reason.
Uchua = ambua Women to injure men blow on their fingers (it-thua umbiningua) and claws air with her hand moving it up and down with jerks when she sees the man leaving his camp. Should he see her doing this he kills her with a club but otherwise he pines & dies. Eyes go into head, limbs wither up etc.
Itthua atnimma (yam stick magic). If a blackfellow has two lubras and one ill-treats the other the latter has recourse to yam stick magic. She sings one out in the bush leaving it there. Then she moves the stick as if pulling the other woman towards her. Then she becomes very ill, legs, eyes, head bad saliva runs out of corner of mouth. Then young woman says she bad enough (supposing younger one be using magic)

Page 86

gets fat and red ochre and rubs her with this and with her yam stick also.

Camp 33. June 12 B.K.

An 9am 1550 9pm 1550
bar. --- 28.350 9pm 28.350
alt. --- 59.5 9pm 63
swing --- 51 9pm 54

[margin note] Rainbow
Rainbow = Umbalara (A.G.) Tchicharra (B.K.)
In the alcherinja blackfellow painted stone at oknanukilla erlinated. red ^at anira The rainbow (son of rain) after he sang the stone came up and ascended into the sky. The rainbow
[margin note] intichima rain
is supposed to stop the rain: they ‘sing’ the rainbow so as to make it go away: if it does then rain comes or if not then it goes away. When Barney ‘makes’ rain of the Ertnatulunga spot: he first of all paints a rainbow on the ground with red ochre close to the Ertnatulunga. Also he paints rainbows on himself & on a shield which afterwards he carries along his camp and keeps it there till rain fallen when he rubs it off. He pours water on the stone at the Ertnatulunga and also over himself.
After performing the ceremony at the Ertnatulunga where are also are other black fellows Barney goes back to his own lubra’s camp (during ceremony Barney has pitchi with water in. He also throws bits of undattha (clouds) in all directions to make rain come up). When Barney goes to his own camp the men go away from the Ertnatulunga camp to another one but not to their lubras. Barney does not speak to his wife who is absent when he returns & as she comes up he imitates cry of pil-pilpa (plover). He stays one night in his own camp. Next day he goes out to the Ertnatulunga & covers up stone with bushes. Then he returns to his lubras camp. not speak yet. Next morning the other men and women go out. The women bring in vegetable food & yarunpa and the men meat. The lubras & men all crying pilp pilpa. Then Barneys mouth is

Page 88

touched with the food supply brought in and then ban silence is broken. There is no drinking of water by B. during this ceremony, nor is any brought to him by the other natives.
[margin note] Tradition of B.K
[margin note] See p 102
Tradition of Peaked hill near B.K & B.K Creek
At a pointed hill Ak-ararinia two Ullakuppera boys jumped up in Alcheringa. One day they went out hunting rats and returned pulling their foreskin back trying to make themselves young men then they went out again & returned again tried as before they went out together a third & fourth time. Then the elder brother of the two went out alone amongst the hills and saw a stone coming from the sky thrown by some blackfellow there: caught it and cut off his foreskin. Returned to camp. The younger brother saw him and said halloa my brother been cut himself. Then he went out into the bush and a stone came to him also from the sky. He took it and cut off his foreskin. Then he came back to camp and the elder one said Hallo my alkiria been cut himself. Then the two sat opposite each other and performed ariltha & the blood of the elder brother ran along B.K flat carving out the creek bed: it flowed on until it reached Urkampijera on the other side of Taylor Crossing: the blood of the younger brother flowed N.W. and made a little creek just to the N. of the Foster Range and then along way on to Koppertanda when it formed a W.H. & then flowed a long way to Kitchichung a chung .

[margin note] Lubras-old man Ilippa

In Alchuringa some lubras of yelka totem of as place called Illippa walked about digging yelka which they unhusked and sat on a spot now marked by a hill called Pulirra. Hill formed of husks thrown there by women. An old man named Ilpiritnarta came from Ilpirita & wanted to take one of the lubras who declined then he went away and returned – again

Page 89

Page 89
[facing page]
Aneroid 9am 1545 9pm 1580
bar. --- 28.355 --- 28.312
att. --- 56.5 --- 63
swing --- 53 --- 54

Page 90

unsuccessful then went back to his camp and soon after tumbled down at a spot marked by a broken hill near station. Then another old man Ilippa came from Ilippa & tried to take another lubra who declined and old man returned to Ilippa & got his tomahawk. Ilippa came to lubra holding out left hand & tomahawk over right shoulder. Seized lubra by arm & tried to drag her away: then he struck her on the neck with his tomahawk saying ‘why do you not come with me’. He killed her dead: the lubras cried loudly and the old man went back to Ilippa & made achilpa quab undattha & sat down there altogether. Big oknanikilla. Man was Panunga and woman Opilla.

Camp 33. June 13. BK

[margin note] magic
(Tunnqula) Magic. Imwania. Make a pointing stick in the bush. put atcha on one end and hair string. Put his own blood on the stick. sing it it and place it close to fire. Make burnt rings all round it. Put undattha rings round with blood. Bring it back from the bush and put it in his own camp – laying it down on the bark. Take it up at night & go shuffling towards his enemies camp If the latter is awake he hears the shuffling and the stick is not pointed but if he be asleep & does not wake up then the stick is pointed. Turn with back and point thus under the legs. Makes [sketch of man pointing stick under legs] the man bad in the legs – sometimes chest. After being used the stick is put in a hollow tree & left there. No one dare touch it for fear of et-tha. Buning dries – put him along tree (bring here ) Ungurlia. This painted with mulalpera (? red ochre). atcha on end of string spot it with blood from arm. Point& atcha covered with blood and string [sketch of pointed stick and string] [sketch of hand showing technique for hold stick] points between legs [sketch of stance and position of hand for pointing stick] makes every bad
Therpera: Pointed stick with notches cut by fire stick. Same shuffling as in inwania. Pointed same way as ungurlia. [sketch of pointed stick and string]

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[margin note] Magic

Atuilinga pointed stick in form like Therpera marked with notches made by fire stick notches & indilinga. In the Alchuringa this form of poison stick was used only by the Pulthara and Panunga other poison sticks belonged only to the Purula & Kumara. Some of these in the Alcheringa jumped up at a place called Abmarlarunga and by them plenty of black fellows were killed. They were washed away during a flood.

During the making of the Atuilinga the following words are sung time after time.
Ya pa il perti, ya pai al kari, ya kurti wali, yung wenti kari ya pa alkari. These are Alcheringa words with no recent meaning

Kaitish have no bone pointing apparatus. Only wooden. Waramunga & Unmatchera have bones.

[margin note] Extent of Tribes

Unmatchera Tribe Stirling & Mt. Stuart.
Foster Range (Upmaraninja) is S. boundary of Kaitish which extends N. up to Bonny Well (Pitchachalkara). Gilbert Country = Warramunga

Camp 33. June 14 B.K.
An 9am 1560 9pm 1675
bar. --- 28.355 --- 28.220
alt. --- 57 --- 66
swing --- 53 --- 63

Morning with Tungulla. Deping etc. Aft. Tungulla. Deping Skinning Tish? etc. Writing notes. Natives brought in 2 okerta (Adnunga) V. gilleni. Acantharus maculatus.
In the Alcheringa certain Purula & Kumara men of Wutta (rat) totem arose at a water hole on a little creek away S.W of B.K. W.H. = Erlukwaria. They eat everything. Name of one man (reincarnation lately died) was Ertai-intiga. He said Oknircha Ertwaiintiga anilla inria yinga wutta kartwi. Big Ertwai intiga sit down I rat country. He also remarked about the dark coming at night time.
¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬[margin note] see later for ?twa
In the alcheringa there were no human beings only indefinitely shaped

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[margin note] Interintera
creatures called inter-intera (= inapertwa) also ilcha thera thera atnatherathera. The last name in allusion to the fact that they had two atria one on each wrist in the hollow between the ends of the ulna & radius. Two ullakuppera also were only boys came up from the other side of the Ilpiria country (Anjua country= name of place ). They were Thungalla and Umbitchana. They made the inter intera into men as they came along. First they started on the other side of the Ilpiria country then they came to Kukaitcha and then to the Miniara tribe. Then to Ilpiria & then to the Unmatchera & then to the Kaitish at Foster Range. Then they circum & subincised themselves & then went on as far as the Bonny Well making men. They cut with stones called unquartija. From the Bonny they turned around and came S. to Atnungara out W. where they lay down on their churinga and died & where? a big Hill & Rock hole jumped up. Had they placed their churinga beside them men would have jumped up later (reincarnation) as it was they laid on top of them.
[margin note] stealing Churinga
Panunga man named Urlia in alcheri. jumped up at Taylor Crossing (Purupa) went to Allalgera . stole urlia churinga. The man came and sat down beside the Allalgera
mob and began thinking will this mob give me Churinga. No give him Churinga. Allalgera men went out hunting emu (were emu men). The stranger said he tired along o’ leg cant walk so he sat down in the camp all day & searching around ground a bag of churinga. one of the Allelgera mob however did not go far out but after digging up some yams came in again & saw the stranger undoing the bag. Him say what for you steal him: the old Emu man Tuirokita by name could not run & so urlia the stranger got away with half of the churinga. Urlia took his spoils to Purupa when he tumbled down - when a big oknan. sprang up. At a later period some of these were burnt and so no more reincarnation can take place in regard to them.

[Margin note] Nanja
Nanja tree etc = ai-il-pilla. No one is allowed to kill anything on the tree etc. except unkulla. If eat kill em dead (fact of eating will).

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Everything around close by in Ekärinja. The man clear up the tree smooths space around moves bits of bark away etc.

[margin note] Seeing of Irrunturnia
Irruntarnia = At-tha-marinia. ? if special name. Tungulla cant see Irrunturnia. A man named Ungarnguria can see both Atthamarinia and arumburinga. The irruntarnia show quab. undath. to Ungarnguria.

[margin note] Tungalla’s walk about etc.
[margin note] Nanja tree

Tungalla & his nanja tree. Nanja = ai-il-pilla
[sketch of location with following annotations]
Spirit walk back to ai-il-pilla tree
Sit down gather seed die here
Look back long way water hole
look back not long way yet
look back water still close up
look back not very far
Tree nanja
water hole

[margin notes] Tungalla & Marunda

[numbered sketch of location with stick people and trees]

1. Tungalla a little boy in Alcheri.
2. Old man Marunda grass seed (Thungalla) gave churinga to Tungalla & C.name, Arabiniaurungurinia. & said his name was Marundda. Tungalla started to walk about and placed his churinga under his head (?) when he slept. Walked to 4 where he stood up and looked back, too close, then to 5.6.7. still too close. Then to 8 where he stood up Churinga on ground then he said the lubras might see it so he laid it on the ground and went back along path marked 9. Marunda (2) who had very big balls was an old grey man when he gave Tungalla his churinga. He said when I die you take my churinga and put it with yours at 8 & look after it. Then Marunda went into the ground and a big stone jumped up. (balls. alkarilkara) representing balls from which arungguiltha arose. 10 Atnunga (Umbitchana man) of Atnunga totem (P.lagotis) came from along way off in the Aldorla (11) stopped at 12.

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[margin note] wanderings Atnunga & Marunda

slept, got up in the morning, smelt a big stink coming from direction in which he was travelling said hello that might be a kangaroo which wild dogs kill & eat. I’ll go a have & have look: then he started following up the stink until he found Marunda who said I am an old man Marunda and I stay here all day. Atnunga said oh! that is your stink: then he went on to 13 and found an old man Atnunga-urlunda (urlunda = dried up skin) who was Atnunga & umbitchana & he called him Arunga (fathers’ father).
[margin note] Atnunga digging out atninga with atnunga churinga
They camped together and the old man feeling tired sent Atnunga out hunting for atnunga & gave him an atnunga churinga & told him to dig out the animals with it. Atnunga got some atnunga and took it to the camp & gave it to the old man who cooked and eat it all then he sent Atnunga out again hunting. He dug out first Atnunga which he saw & when he got close to it the atnunga jumped out and ran away. the old man chased it into another hole which he dug it out of again with the same result: rat ran into another hole: old man chased and dug as before: rat ran away again-long way: he threw his churinga and broke it (14) ruining the
[margin note] ?
animal churinga split in two ^2 stones jumped up here^ Old man chased okerta to 15 then to 16 where it went into a hole and another Atnunga man (Uknaria) maned Atnunga killed it. (He had a big atnitta) Old man came and sat down with him & thought when is this man going to give me atnunga. Uknaria man cut it up wrong way (disjointed it) so old man told him to split it up straight. Then Uknaria gave the atnunga to old man. Then the latter went back to his camp at 15 and said. hello my mate been walk. Followed him up to where he had crawled on hands and knees to 17 where he found him dead. Came back to 18 and stood up close to old man’s place. A big blood wood arose to mark spot.

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Camp 33 June 15. B.K.
an 9am
bar ---
alt ---
swing ---

Morning printing, writing notes, Turgula etc
[sketch with annotations]

[Margin note] Atnatu. Atnatu. no totem except Alchera he was the great (oknirra emu) man of the pre alcherian times

An alcheringa black fellow a great man with a very black face & no atna lived (& still lives) beyond the sky. He belongs to the alälira totem & had knives with which he ‘cut’ himself & the men up there. He is the father of the son of the stars site & sites down always while the sun goes across the sky & then comes back again.
[margin note] Two ullakuppera boys – alälira
He has another sky beyond him with another sun on it. He looked down and saw the two ullakuppera boys walking about & threw down 1st one alälira unkwartiga to the elder brother who looking up said hello leaf fall down but then he saw that it was a stone knife. He caught it. Then the younger brother caught a second stone knife which the alchira man threw down. Then the two ullakuppera boys walked about the country making men & women etc. When they had done this they came to a rock hole in a big hill. The w.h. was called Aniania. There they took water in their mouths & so washed the alchira. Then they were tired. They saw a big snake come out of a hole and cast it’s skin and this walked away saying it might bite them & then they saw an old man at a place called Atnungara looking out for okerta he was an okerta (atunnga) man. Then the younger brother said you & me tired shall we kneel down. The older brother did not answer. The younger boy knelt down

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[margin note] K

with his hands behind him. Then the younger brother said shall you & me stand up? No answer from the big brother. They carried the lalira long their hair girdles. They had churinga in their arm pits and on their shoulders & in their hands pressed up against their stomachs. Then the big brother said Anakrakia drink water, muljainka drink water. Blackfellow, lubra drink water. Then they lay down on the churinga and so they died. Had they not said this & hidden the churinga then no lubras might have drunk water there and as they hid their churinga they cannot give rise again to blackfellows.

Atnatua & bull roarer. When Atnatu hears the bull roarer sounding on earth when the blackfellows initiate a boy there he whirls his & cuts a boy also. Atnatu has got a big bundle of spears which he has tied up & rattles together and of these spears the natives are very
[margin note] see July 5. p 204
frightened. When Atnatu hears the bullroarer sound at the initiation all is right: otherwise he would kill the blackfellow with his spear. The boy is told to play about the bush with the bullroarer so that Atnatu may hear him and then all will be well with him and atnatu will not spear him. The lubras think that the sound of the bullroarer is a ‘debil debil’ singing out. Call it Tumanna.
[margin note] Ullakuppera boys see p.88.
Two Ullakuppera boys (=Ullaraba-raba in Kaitish) were two eggs in nest at Unjuia. The elder brother broke his shell & came out – a little boy – then listened and heard younger brother making noise in his shell broke latter & released him. Little beggar coming out said “where is father” & elder one said “We have no father nor mother” Little beggar said where shall we go. Shall we go Aldurla. Elder brother stood up & said nothing. Little one then asked shall we Guiria (E). Elder brother said nothing. Presently elder brother said we go i-irrirra (N). Then they started and when

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[margin note] K
they arrived at Kararinia (2 hills in Foster to N. of latter) they had few pubic hairs. Saw interintera all way along we continually trying to get foreskin back. Before going to sleep at night pulled foreskin back and during night it went back again. Atnatu saw them trying to keep foreskin back & sent lälira down (see before). When Ullarabaruba were trying to get
[margin note] Luichalinga (bird) trying to circumcise with fire stick
skin back they heard Luichalinga (little birds who were interinta) singing & trying to burn of skin with small firesticks but did not go near them until they had received the alalira & cut themselves. Then being men they went to Luichalinga camp and saw a lot of old men interintera sitting down and only having piccaninny mouths. Made an apulla (Uailpa) and then made them into men and women. The creek now marks the apulla.

Camp 33 June 16th B.K.

an 9am 1640 9pm 1650
bar -- 28.260 -- 28.248
att -- 67.5 -- 69
swing -- 63 -- 64

Tungula (Kaitish) Teeth knocking out. The alcheringa people said always that teeth were
[margin note] Teeth knocking out
to be knocked out because the water tasted better with one out. It was no good drinking water without having a tooth out as otherwise the sand got all about the teeth. When the tooth is out the sand is not tasted. In the alcheringa two men named Mantera jumped up at a place called Arinpera lakilika (mouth teeth-broke). They were brothers and the big one said to the little one suppose we pull our teeth out. The little brother said no I will knock the tooth out not pull it. Then they made a small hole in the ground and the big brother lay down with his head in the hole and the little brother knocked his tooth out. When he had finished he said hallo blood came from my brothers tooth. Then he lay down and the big brother

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[margin note] K
[margin note] Two snake men
knocked the little brother’s tooth out. The two brothers then sat opposite to one another and said that they looked very well with their teeth out. Then they buried the teeth in the ^and spat blood onto the ground^ground and a big water hole jumped up. After the teeth had been 1 day in the ground the little brother said shall we go & walk about in the bush. The big brother remained silent. Then the little one said shall we go to the irrirra (N). The big brother made no answer but sat down quiet. The little brother said shall we go along to the urula. Still no answer from the elder. The little brother said shall we go along illtunga, then shall we go along altimurla (W), then shall we go along andigera (E), then shall we go along iknura-iknurika (E. of S.). All this time the big brother said nothing but sat down quiet quiet. The big brother at last said I am too much a snake and have no feet to walk with but always go along on my stomach. The little one said all right you & me sit down here. So they stayed there and made an oknanikilla. At first these two were snake men with no legs and skin like a snake finally they changed completely into snakes called mantera (vermicelli annulata). No snake men & women arise from this spot only snakes. The interintera living in this part were very frightened of these two snakes for fear they should bite them and used to go along way round so as to avoid going near their moria. By & by a snake man called Elungunjia arose close to Arinpera he was a Panunga & Mantera and all day he used to catch the black fellows for they said the snakes knocked out their teeth in the alcheringa it will be good if we do the same.

In the afternoon Peperil came in from the north with two letters sent to P.D. Finished our diaries and posted them. Photed some

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old men and women. Unmatchera Jack came in from the Stirling.

June 17 Camp 33 Barrow Creek

an 9am 1625 9pm 1575
bar -- 28.275 -- 28.225
att -- 67 -- 66
swing -- 63.5 -- 61.5

Dull day. Writing letters all day. Printing.

June 18. Camp 33. Barrow Creek

an 9am 1480 9pm 1510
bar -- 28.425 -- 28.390
att -- 62 -- 64.5
swing -- 54.5 -- 55

Writing in morning. Very dull with occasional rain showers but nothing serious. Writing most of day. Photos of “Lillie” etc.

June 19 Camp 33 Barrow Creek

Writing most of the day. In the late afternoon 9 natives including Old Barney the head of the rain totem came in from the north.

June 20 Camp 33 B.K.

an 9am 1525 9pm 1575
bar -- 28.375 -- 28.325
att -- 65 -- 62
swing -- 54 -- 55

Writing most of day. Second loot from natives but except from two good shields little of any use.

June 21. Camp 33. B.K.

Unmatchera Jack in morning. Printing. Writing. Photod grave after dinner. Evening finishing up writing for mail and packing

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[margin note] Un
[margin note] Central Mt Winnecke
up photos. Tradition relating to Irritcha puncha = Central Mt Winnecke. In the alcheringa an ancient eagle hawk sat down at Irritcha puncha where he had many churinga and eggs out of which presently there came young eagle hawks. His camp was by the side of a waterhole called illa punpilla. One day another old eaglehawk whose camp was a long way off to the west at Irrulcha looked out and said to himself hallo I see a mob of eagle hawks I will go along that mob. So he flew over and sat down at Irritcha puncha beside the other old eagle hawk. Now the old eagle hawk from Irrulcha had no churinga and after a time he said to the other you sit down along the sun too much why not come into my country where there is shade in the scrub. But the old eagle hawk took no notice of him. Then he said after waiting for some time hoping that a churinga would be given to him – suppose you give me that churinga. But still the old eagle hawk took no notice of him. After some time he went up into the sky – alkira-ilipara elulka – with the young birds to hunt wallaby on which they fed for they did not eat irritcha fearing lest it would turn them grey like eating irritcha always does except in the case of very old men. While they were away the old irritcha on the hill who had stayed behind guarding the churinga felt hungry and searched around for wallaby. He caught one and eat it but unfortunately one of the bones got caught cross wise in his throat & choked him so that he died. The other eagle hawk in the sky saw what had happened and said to the young birds hallo the old man is dead. So he and they hurried back to the hill and the elder one watched the young ones cut their breasts with little churinga & paint themselves with undattha & then they all flew away together into the sky.

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[margin note] Unmatchera
By and by they returned and sat down on a hill where at length the young ones died. The old man survived there for some time but finally he died also and they all went into the ground and thus an oknanikilla was formed. The old eagle hawk who survived had a big nurtunja which he placed on his head and it went straight through his body and came out per anus, and a big stone called nurtunja irritcha arose to mark the spot.
[margin note] Origin of Unmatchera Old crow man
Origin etc of the Unmatchera etc
There was an old crow man who sat down at Ungurla on the Woodford R. In the Alcheringa he arose from a Churinga and when he first came up he looked at himself and said I think I must be a hawk, but no I am too black. Then he thought he was an eagle hawk but he had too much wing, then he looked at his arms out of which feathers had sprouted and said I am a crow. This old crow sat down on the top of a hill while the sun was up and when it set then he went back to his Churinga camp and slept there. Instead of what is usual he passed eggs out of his body. `One day he saw far off the mob of Unmatchera irimintera (= Arunta Unapertwa) and determined to go and make them into men and women. This he did with his beak and then returned to his camp and there made a churinga lälira with which to “cut” them. Meanwhile however two old Parenthie men had come up from far away to the south and with their teeth circumcised and subincised the Unmatchera men and cut the women and then returned to their own country. When the old crow had got his lälira ready he prepared to start off but looking out saw that the two parenthie had been before him and so he stayed at Ungwurla & a big black stone marks the spot where he died and in the ertuatulunga there his eggs are kept as churinga.

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[margin note] Unmatchera
Eating totem etc amongst Unmatchera. The Unmatchera only eats normally a little of his [margin note] see latter notes
totem if he eats too much he is bad and swells up. Other men can eat it. Idni imita (grub)
intichiuma. After preparing the ceremony of intich. all men of rain classes & totem bring
[margin note] painting of performers by nen of other moiety
supplies of the grub to him. Jack is a Purula & the Panunga & Bulthara men paint him. After the ceremony he takes the grubs eats a little and gives some to the older men who painted him – the larger ones he gives to the Mulyanuka the smaller ones to the Anakrakia. Then he says “you all about eat it”.

Inapertwa. Arnuta. Inmintera. Unmatchera. Interintera Kaitish.

June 22 Camp 33 B.K.

an 9am 1590 9pm 1540
bar -- 28.310 -- 28.865
att -- 61.5 -- 64
swing -- 55 -- 55.5

Mail to S. went in morning by Peperill. After mail went spent morning with Unmatchera Jack whose native name is Illpaliurkna.
[margin note] see later
[margin note] see p 140
Tradition of Unthurkunpunda etc.
Unthurkunpunda are Thungalla & Idni-irnita man sprang up at a spot called Umburniriga on the Burt Plain. He travelled over to Illaquarra on the south bank of the creek & where he stood there a big orange tree arose to mark the spot while he put down his alalkirra which he carried with him a big stone arose. He saw a mob of idni imita men on the opposite bank of the creek where there is a big water hole called Intiarra. One old man a Kumara named Idni -imita who was a mate (ilquathara) of his came out to him and he gave him churinga and his alalkira receiving in return churinga and alpita. The alalkira he gave to the man to help him to dig out idni imita from the roots in which they lived. He had plenty of churinga along his own

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[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Untharkapunta
camp where he kept his own churinga which was guarded by his own mob of people or if they and he chanced to be away by the irrunturnia. If it should happen that a Kurdaitcha should [margin note] Churinga
steal it then the irunturnia would get it back again for him. (They cannot imagine such a thing as a man’s churinga being really lost or destroyed). The old man finally went back with the churinga to his camp on the Burt where he died and is now reincarnated in the person of [name obscured and crossed out] a man now alive & at the Burt. The spirits attached to the [margin note] Spirits attached to churinga
churinga which were thus exchanged are continually wanting to get back to their old camp and sometimes sit down at one camp and sometimes at the other.

Allatunja. in Kaitish = Ilpilparantianna. in Unmatchera = Inquaticha.
Ertuatulunga. in Kaitish. Amoama. in Unmatchera = Ertuatulunga
Churinga. in Kaitish. Allongalla. in Unmatch. = Churinga.
[margin note] Luletir

Widows. In Unmatchera the widow passes to the next younger brother who if he does not want her may pass her on to the younger brother.
In after had 4 sacred ceremonies.
K. (1) Erlia of Undertharara. man who marched over &^(photos)^ stole churinga^(see p.94)
K. (2) Quatcha of Anira.b 2 men “Barney & his brother”. B. carried 2 nartunja (see p.86)
[sketch of body painting with annotation] decoration on body = lighting.
[sketch of stick with feather tuft with annotations] sky(feathers) clouds (rings of down)
K. (3) Grass seed (Erlippinna) of Yerlitcha. Perform Tungula.
(4) Idni imita of Intiaria. (see p.114) 40 mates also exchanged churinga . One of performers was son of reincarnation of man who gave alpita & is now head of Ilaquara ok.
[Sketch of body painting with annotations]
grass Seed Ceremony.
red with white border unground and uncooked seed.
seed after grinding & cooking.

Page 118

[margin note] Unmatchera
June 23 June 23 Camp 33 B.K.

an 9am 1450 9pm
bar -- 28.425 --
att -- 56.5 --
swing -- 49 --

Unmatchera burial etc.
[margin note] Burial
When an old man does who has a big ertuatulunga he is buried in a tree but if he be a very old man with little flesh left who has “lost his corroboree” then he is put straight into the ground. If he be a ‘big’ man then they “are too much sorry” to put him straight along ground. Young lubras & boys and girls are also put in trees but not a young man if he has done such a thing as marry a woman of the wrong class. An old woman is put straight in the ground because they are not sorry enough to put her in a tree. Little children are put in trees with the idea that their spirits may come out again and re-enter their mothers and be reborn.
The actual placing in the tree is done by the allira ^ okilia^ & oknia of the man. The actual grave of a man in a tree is made by his son who also pulls the body up into place. Then they return to camp and the gammona (? also ertwali & erlitchi) cut themselves on the shoulder = [margin note] head placed facing mira of gammona
mulla mulla. The body is left in the tree and then after some time often a long time itia & gammona go out and bury bones. The head is placed facing the mia alcheringa of the dead man’s gammona if he has [?] actual mother’s brother then it is placed so as to face the mia ^the^alchera of the mia. ^[insert symbol linked to the following from bottom of page] The kuruna (spirit of dead man) goes to the mira of the gammona (or mia if no actual gammona). After the bones are buried if the man has a big ertuatulunga a big quabarra is prepared by his elder brother and shown to the men of all classes. This is called Quab. undattha luraparimma. Dead man is called kirria ilchapma (= ? bitten meat). Grave ( raised mound) = aperta uria. the hole = ulkna.

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[margin note] Unmatchera.
[margin note] Unkurta sup 126
Tree burial etc in Unmatchera. In the alcheringa a Bulthara man arose at a place in the Harts Range called Umulyilla ung/q/uia inig/k/a which also was his name. When he arose he was very stiff & could not walk and lay down all day in the sunshine & stretched his legs. Then he looked at himself and said Hallo I am an unkurta (jew lizard). Then after a time he looked and saw on the ground beside him and the little unkurta and he said Hallo that’s me then he looked again and again and saw others and said Hallo that’s me again each time. These [margin note] Unkurta
unkurta sprang from him. Then he saw one die and he said Hallo that’s me dead I will go and bury him in the ground. No I’m too sorry to do that I will bury him along a tree. Then he continued to look at himself and gradually he increased & became great in the flesh and grew into an oknirabata. After he had grown thus he left camp and travelled away to a place called Unqurtunga where he saw a Kumana man of the Iwuta (nail tailed wallaby) totem named [margin note] Arilka an Iwuta man
Arilkara. First of all he told him that if he looked he would see when he lay down to sleep another iwutta beside him all the same as himself & then another & another & so on until there were a whole mob of iwutta. Then if he continued to look at himself he would increase in size & became great in the flesh & an oknirabata and finally he told him to tell his son when he died to bury him in a tree and not in the ground and that his sons were to go and tell other blackfellows to do the same. And it came to pass even as Unkurta had said. Then the great Unkurta travelled on until he came to a place called Intukina where there lived a man [margin note] Qualpa
named Qualpa who was a Appungerta and a long tailed rat. Unkurta said to him my name is Unkurta: I had no mother. I have seen plenty of unkurta sitting down beside me and said hallo they

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[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Unkurta etc
are all the same as myself : they are all me : they came from me. Then I looked at myself for long and grow in size until my flesh became great and I grew into an oknirabata. By & by plenty of picanninies will come to you first as they did to me and they will be just the same as you and you will say hallo that is me & again hallo that is me when you see them. and a whole mob will sit down beside you and then if you go on looking at yourself you will become great in flesh and an oknirabata. Then Unkutta asked Qualpa what do you do when another Qualpa does and he replied I do not bury him I throw him anywhere along the ground. Then Unkutta said it is not good to throw him away like that : if you are very sorry you must put them up in a tree. Tell your son when you are dead to put you up in a tree and tell them to put other men up in trees.
The he travelled on to Awampana & there met a Kumara man named Waratah who was an [margin note] Waratah An Arawa man
Arawa (wallaby). Unkurta said to him what is your name and he said my name is Waratah: he asked Unkarta what is your name and Unkarta said my name is Unkarta and he told the Wallaby that he had plenty of young ‘unkurtas’ at his camp and that by & by he the Wallaby would have plenty of picanninies. The wallaby when he first arose had looked at himself and now saw that on his side under his arm he had black hairs : then he looked at his arms and saw that they were short and said Oh I am all the same as a wallaby. Then Unkurta looked at him and said yes you are a wallaby alright you have got hair all the same as a wallaby. Then the wallaby looked at Unkurta and said that he had got prickles all over just the same as unkurta now has. Then unkurta told him to look at himself and by & by he would see picanninies around him just the same as himself. Then Unkurta told him that if his children died he was to put them in

Page 124

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Unkurta etc
trees and that he was to tell his sons to bury him (waratah) in a tree supposing he died and had a big ertuatulunga.
Then Unkurta started away and went back to his first camp and near to this at Okalpara he saw a rat man who was an Umbitchana named unjillkinja (=name given to the whistling sound made by the rat when it runs) This man sat down in the sand country amongst the Porcupine grass (aiuta). Unkurta said Hallo that man is black. I think he must be an Atnunga because he has got hair all along his foot. Unkurta asked him what his name was and he said my name is Atnunga. Then Urukulla I thought you were Atnunga. Then Atnunga said I jumped up amongst the Porcupine grass. Unkurta asked who made you? and At. replied I have got no mother and then Unkurta said all right your country & mine are close together. Then he told him to look at himself and by & by picanninies would grow from him. When he slept he put his Churinga under his head and when he woke up in the morning he saw young ones around hum and said hallo that one all the same as me and again hall that is all the same as me for behold there was a mob of atnunga. Yinga alla uritkia anchima intinia: ying alla intikalla undima intima : ninulla intikalla anduna intima. Then after telling Atnunga that he was to teach his sons to bury him in a tree and that he was to look at himself & watch his flesh grow until he became an oknirabata he went back to his own camp. When he got back he sent his sons out in various directions so that they might give rise to oknanikilla & then he himself died being lying upon his churinga but he left many churinga in a hole close by. He told his sons to tell other black fellows to bury their dead in trees & to beware of wild dogs but the young men looked at their prickles and said no the dogs will not bite us. Later on a man named Anulia arose from one of

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[margin note] Unmatchera
the churinga left behind by Unkurta.

June 24 Camp 33 B.K.

an 9 am 1545 9 pm 1500
bar --- 28.450 --- 28.400
att --- 57 --- 63
swing --- 52.5 --- 55

Morning with Unmatchera Jack see notes on origin of totems etc. Aft. Jack. Skinning birds. Writing out notes. printing etc. Talk to Gill on line. Cinemat. film satisfactory. Phonograph to be kept in his office. Gill to ask Premier as to possibilityof gov. launch helping us on Roper R.

origin of totemic animals etc. Unmatchera
In the alcheringa unkurta first time arose in the form of Amunga quiniaquinia : then he looked at himself and said oh me got prickle all same porcupine. Then he looked at himself & called himself Amulya. Then he grow a little bigger and became unkurta. Then looked at himself again & saw that he was a big man. Then he slept & awoke & saw that there were many others around him who had come from him and are all the same as him. Unkurta and his offspring were ertwa not intirintera.
[margin note] Firts performance of intichinma
A man named Amulia sprang up close to where Unkurta died coming from one of his Churinga and he made the first ceremony of intichinma which resulted in the formation of [margin note] see pp 121-124
unkurta lizards which before did not exist. In the same way a Wallaby man named arawa at arawa made the first intichinma & thereby created arawa or wallaby. A qualpa appungerta man after the death of the first great qualpa arose and made intichinma and created the long tailed rats.
An iwutta man at unqurtunga arose after the great Iwutta man was dead and made intichinma and so formed the first iwutta animals. When preparing ceremonies these men used churinga & undattha.

Page 128

[margin note] Unmatchera
Interinitera and ertwa amongst the Alcheringa Unmatchera.
Men of the following totems were ertwa Men of the following totems were inter intera.
Unkurta idnimita
Qualpa erlia Achilpa
iwutta okira okerta
atnungura Arunga pigeon
Thakwia (small conilurus) ertua Illunja (galah)
Arawa obina white cockatoo
Allabaya wungara
Parenthie quatcha


[margin note] Interintera & Ertwa
A creek on the north side of the Harts Range which

[small annotated sketch if creek] Enturkinga Udnurinja Okerta lalla Tapilla Umbami.

flows from N.E. to S.W. and has the above marked spots along it marks the boundary between the groups of the Unmatchera which were formed first as Interintera (on the southern side) and then formed as ertwa (vide[?] Inkurta etc) on the north side.

[margin note] Ertwaininga women p.140
Traditions of the Ertwaininga
(1) In the alchera a number of women all of whom were Kumara walked across the Unmatchera country from west to Mt Stuart. They belonged to the Namung -y-yera (little bird) totem and came from the country beyond the sea. They left women at various spots thus forming oknannikilla. One being left with unkurta. They were called & called themselves Ertwaininga. Namung-y-yera went on to another tribe where they are called quaralkinia. They carried yam sticks & not churinga. So did all Ertwaininga.
(2) Erlia (Panunga) – Impi impi (uknaria) women travelled to the w. from Erlalkerra a place amongst the sandhills. They were called Arita because of their stiff legs. They left some women at Mt Stuart with Emu men. On the other side of Mt Stuart they

Page 130

[margin note] Unmatchera
met some ungalla men who were Erlia and with them they left some impi impi (little bird) women. They left more women along the creek. In the neighbourhood of Mt Stuart there are two oknannikillas close together one Erlia & the other Impi impi formed by these women.
(3) Iralla women walked from S.E. to N.W. The iralla is a little beetle. (Arunta = atipa tipa. Unmatchera = arilla) They started at Unjanjiuka ^ out from the Harts Range^ where they left one lubra behind named Unjanjiuka. These women were Appungartas and Bultharas. At Ilko-ordna they found two women who were Umbitchana and were of the urakulpa (akakia = santalum sp) totem. One of these two women is now reincarnated on the Stirling Creek. All of the women (1), (2) and (3) were called Ertwaininga.

Tradition of two Oruncha.
In the Alcheringa two Oruncha camped at Arknina. One stayed in the camp in search of bushy-tuck out. Another went along a tree to look out for kangaroos. The younger one stayed at home while the elder brother sneaked up behind the kangaroo with his spear but could not catch him. Then he camped and slept there all day & close up along sundown went back to his own camp. The younger brother asked him where was the kangaroo and he replied I have not got it. The next morning the elder brother went out & saw the same mob of kangaroos along the same tree and again he sneaked up but was unsuccessful. Then again he camped there & slept all day, & at sunset went back to his camp. That night it rained & stopped early in the morning so at midday the elder brother oruncha started off for the same tree. He saw that one big old man kangaroo lay down asleep and he sneaked up & kicked the animal. On this the kangaroo jumped up and ran away and after him went the Oruncha to a place called Pulla pulla where the oruncha got bogged in the sand and could not at first

Page 132

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Two Oruncha kangaroo Induda
pull himself out. He pulled out one leg and put it on a stick : then he pulled up the other leg but them his balls got in the mud & stuck fast and lastly his penis got stuck. At length he pulled himself out & then walked on to a place where he met a Thungalla man named Induda who was an opossum (Anthinna) and had come out from Iruga away in the S.W. looking for kangaroos with a dog. He had seen the big old man kangaroo come up and had killed it or rather his dog had. When the Oruncha saw this he said hallo you have killed that kangaroo have you? and Induda said yes me been kill em your kangaroo. Then Induda carried the kangaroo a little further on and cooked it while the oruncha sat by and watched. The Oruncha said to Induda give me a woomera I want to sharpen my yam stick. Induda threw it to him and nearly hit him in the balls and he had to bob back in order to avoid it. When he had finished sharpening his stick he threw the amera back to Induda who did not give him any of the kangaroo. Then the oruncha called up the dog who was named Prilpinna and killed him with his yam stick a little distance away. This enraged induda who threw the kangaroo down on the ground & had a fight with the oruncha. He could not catch the Oruncha because he kept falling down first to one side and then to the other. At last the Oruncha ran and got a short yam stick with which he struck Induda on the side under the arm & killed him. Then he sucked up Induda’s blood and proceeded to cook him on the spot where Induda had just cooked the kangaroo. There also he cooked the dog and eat its & Induda’s ‘guts’. Then he hung (1) Induda up in a tree then the dog (2) then the kangaroo (3)
[numbered sketch of location]
[annotations] Oruncha camp camp where cooked Induda
Then some iwutta which Induda had caught (4) then lizard (5) then snakes (6) then little fellow snakes (7) then went along his camp. The younger brother

Page 134

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Two oruncha Induda
saw him returning along way off and was glad but pretended not to see him and sat down in the camp till his brother came up. The latter was sulky but the younger brother went up and patted him saying he was glad to see him again. Then the elder brother told the little brother to go and get the snakes out of the nearest tree. He got up in such a hurry that his penis almost tumbled into the fire. Then he came back to the camp and his penis nearly hit his brother in the back. The big brother said go and get another snake and again his penis nearly tumbled into the fire and when he got back nearly hit his brother in the back. He did this in turn with regards to the various animals until he came to the kangaroo when he kissed his brother feeling very glad : the same also with regard to the dog. The sun went down and then the elder oruncha got his charcoal & painted himself up & got his spear & yam stick. In the morning the younger arose and when he got close up to his brothers camp he saw that he was all painted up and had his lalkira in his nose & said what is my brother going to do today. Then the elder brother said I have killed your & my unkulla come and growl at me. Instead of this the little brother kissed him and then the elder brother led him to his camp. & then the younger one went & brought the body of Induda into camp. The younger brother had eaten the Iwutta, snakes etc the elder brother did not touch them nor did he Induda (save the guts). Meanwhile one of Induda’s itia had tracked him up and had found the spot where he had killed the kangaroo and had also seen the oruncha’s track and the spot where he had killed Induda and then he had gone back to Irnga (Induda’s place) to organise an atunga. By & by the Oruncha eat Induda and made a lonka lonka out of his shoulder blade and put it on his forehead.

Page 136

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Two orunchas Induda
Then Induda’s mob came up from Irnga. The little brother said to the elder you you & I will look out an Atninga might come up and after a short time lo & behold one did come up. The younger brother said we wont run away we well stand up and fight. Then they set to work and the atninga men could not spear them because no sooner did they throw their spears than the oruncha dived into the ground and came up behind the atninga men. this they did first to one side and then to the other. Then two of the atninga men – those on the left side – hid behind a bush and the two oruncha came up close beside them & then they speared them & killed them while the two oruncha had their backs towards them. The hearts of the two oruncha came out & lay on the grass.
[margin note ] Hearts of two Oruncha growling
The Induda men then walked on but after a short time heard the hearts growling behind them. Then they went back & again speared the bodies and the hearts kept quiet. Off they started and again the hearts growled and once more they turned back & killed the oruncha dead. Again the hearts growled and this time the men came back and broke the orunchas heads to pieces. Again the men started off but the left hand men hid in the scrub and saw that it was the hearts growling and got hold of them & finally burnt them in the fire after which the oruncha ceased from troubling and the men went back to Irnga.
The oruncha had no churinga.

api oka kuralia stars Uralpa morn
Mia meat Unterika inia bushy tuck out

June 25 Camp 33 B.K.

an 9 am 1525 9 pm 1575
bar --- 28.375 --- 28.325
att --- 58 --- 64
swing --- 53 --- 52.5

Page 138

Unmatchera. Inter intera etc
[margin note] Origin of Idni imita
In the alcheringa the Idni imita first of all were ig nit-tha small hairy caterpillars. which walked about on the idnimita bushes and eat the leaves. By and by there came up a big rain which soaked them all as they had gone into the ground. The rain washed their hairs off and then they were changed into Idnimita and went into the roots. Then there came a [margin note] At-thithka
second rain and with this a little idnimita from the sea country far away. When first he came down with the rain he had little spots then he grew bigger and red and then bigger again and white and then he went into the ground. When he was a little one (at thithika) it was that the big wind blew him to the place called India where he sat down. (allaia kartwaia = salt water country). After a time his case (chrysalis) came off and then he jumped up an idni imita inter-intera. Gradually he grew larger : he could not see but felt his chin and said hallo! my whiskers grow. He slept all day and was stiff, wanted to move about and tried to get up but could not undouble himself. An old crow (Unappa) came along and perched on a tree & saw him. Then he looked (the crow) towards India. [margin note] Crow & inter inetra
He saw the inter intera man there & flew away on to another tree. Then he came still closer up and looked and watched the inter-intera. Hallo he said these are inter intera. Then he said I think I will open their eyes. Then he set to work and first of all with a slash across the middle made him able to sit up: then he cut the elbow so that the arm could be straightened then under the armpit so that it could be moved on the body then the palm of the hand making two prominent lines on the palm one releasing the fingers the other the thumb. Then cut the eyes, nose & nostrils, mouth, earhole, knee joint, thigh joint, toes and this with the aid of his bill the old crow made the 1st
[sketch of hand, palm up]
[margin note] marks on Palm of hand

Page 140

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] irtnia of idnimta man = his churinga
[margin note] out of the issued ‘kurna’ (spirits)?
idnimita man. The latter lay down every day with his head on his irtnia (chrysalis case) which was his churinga. This was red coloured. He said hallo me Kumara. (no special reason for this). From that Churinga Kurna (spirits arm) which gave rise to idnimita men associated with churinga came. The old Kumara man had sores (his name was Idniimita) in his groin which swelled up. Then they went away and his bones split up and so he [margin note] Old idnimita man makes intichinma
died. Before he died the old man used to paint himself up and make intichinma. He also used to make undatha quab. When sprits emanated from him. A lubra named Araltjitjina who was Idnimita& Purula arose there. She came from him – from his irtnia. Another woman Araltjilina a Purula arose from him after he made quab undatha. A third named Inderdad (Purula) aso arose - Purula. Another named Kulpaitcha a Kumara lubra (qui’itia of old Kumara) Another Ungarkakurta Kumara now reincarnated as ‘Jacks’ daughter.

[margin note] Unthurkapunda eating his totem p.14
Unthurkapunda first time brought up Idnimita to give it to the old Kumara man, who all day long eat idnimita. The old Kumara man used to think what shall I eat today: him say me no got ‘em brother or son. will eat idnimita: suppose me no eat idnimita I shall die. There was nothing save idnimita expect a little bird (thippa thippa) which was too poor to eat.

Iipurudia sone of “Jack”. One of old churinga left by Kumara man.

Legend of Ertwaininga women.
[margin note] p128
When there came across inter intera they went into the ground and came up a long way off. Ertwaininga of Akakia totem went along the Ilpara country on the other side of Cent. Mt. Stuart where were wild dog, Ungalla men. The lubras were Umbitchiana. One of them had a

Page 142

[margin note] Ertwaininga women
[margin note] Lubra & wild dog
child born in the wild dog country. The baby was Panunga & a quiai. The lubra wanted to kill the baby but the wild dog said if she killed it he would kill her put her in a hole and sit on the top of her. So she left the baby with him. It was akakia. When she grew up he married her. One day 2 kurdaitchas came up and saw the wild dog who was looking for wild dogs in a hole while his lubra was close by at a fire in the camp. The wild dog was down a hole which turned at right angles so he did not see the Kurdaitcha who caught hold of the lubra and broke her ribs. The wild dog came out of the hole and the two Kurdaitchas stood in the scrub. The wild dog went and cooked a rat at the fire. The lubra eat a little of it. Then both went back to their camp. The Kurdaitchas came up at night time – sneaked up. One said to the other you catch hold of the lubra and I will catch the old man. The one K. said let us kill them with a yam stick the other said no spear then with the big spear. One K. held the woman while the other caught the man and screwed his neck around. The man was killed dead close by a stone which marks the spot. The lubra was killed with a yam stick. The original idea of the Kurdaitchas was to go out to another country and kill wild dog men but after this they returned to their own camp.

[margin note] Arungquiltha
Arungquiltha. A. inkupia (ant hill). They find a small ant hill & ‘sing’ it & bring it back into camp powder it up and scatter it over another man’s camp. The black fellow comes back along his camp. Walks about & is affected by the magic. Gets rotten inside and smells. Scratches himself & thinks that he has got burnt. Then tears himself. The sores spread all over. Goes to sleep & dies.
[margin note] Medicined man

Medicine man. Atnungarra. At first the old medicine man threw some atnungarra stones with his woomera at “Jack”. He hit him in the chest & ear & killed him

Page 144

[margin note] Unmatchera
cutting out all his inward parts. There he left him lying all night and went to look at him [margin note] Ilparra man made ”doctor”
in the morning. He put a lot of atnungara stones in his belly, arms & legs and covered his face with leaves. His body swelled up. Then he pounded him will new inside and put fresh atnungara stones in him. Then he patted him on the head and he jumped up alive. “Jack” was made to drink water containing stones & meat also. When “Jack” awoke he said “Tchu, Tchu, Tchu. me think me been lost”. Old doctor say “me been kill you long time”. Then the old man led him back & showed him his camp and told him that it was so & that the woman there was his lubra. He had forgotten all about it. No restriction with regard to his lubra. Some men loose atnungara stones and with them their medicinal powers. One lost it recently through drinking hot stuff.

Arungquiltha ilpongwurra. An ingwaninga stick is sung. An old b.f. named Tukatwinia who gave one to “Jack” taught him their words. “Larpura illamina, larpura illamina, alpongwura larpura illamina, larpura illamina.” The stick is placed on the ground close to the main camp. He sneaks shuffling up and if the black fellow does not wake up he stands quietly & points the stick between his legs. In the morning he sees the point broken and knows that it is inside the blackfellow.
[margin note] teeth not knocked out
The Unmatchera do not knock teeth out.

Ilpailurknas (Jack’s) lubra is Panunga and Yarumpa.

June 26 Camp 33. B.K.

an 9 am 1575 9 pm 1580
bar --- 28.325 --- 28.320
att --- 56 --- 64
swing --- 55 --- 58

Unmatchera Jack & eating of totem in Alcheringa etc.
[margin note] Eating of totem in Alcheringa
No other black fellow sat down in the Alcheringa in the Id. country. He said I must eat Idnimiita. The old Kumara man Idnimiita came up and said I

Page 146

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Eating of totem Untherkapundas foils etc

have been eating idniimita. Then another old man jumped up and said to the old man. I have been eating idniimita. If I eat it it might all die. The other man said my son has been giving me idniimita: suppose I had no son then I should eat it first as you eat it. After having conversed etc Untherkapunda went back. The old man Kumara eat the big idniimita. He made undatha corroboree: then went further & made it again then went & got indniinita. Then he came back to his camp when he made undatha quab. at Undiara again. Another man went out and got witchetty. Then they had a spell. Then once more he painted himself with undattha & made intichiuma and then he went out & got witchetty. Boils jumped up on his legs. He went out and got more witchetty. Then he got so bad that he could not walk but lay down all day along camp. He thought what made me like this: perhaps some one has been coming up to take my churinga: when I am dead I will lie on the top of it. Then he became emaciated with boils which appeared on him. His throat closed up dry & before daylight he burst and that was the end of him. When he died he lay down on the top of his churinga & that of Unthurkapunda also. When the natives now make intichiuma at Undiara they pass between stones which represent the legs of the old Kumarra man.
At Undiara Kumara & Purula jumped up afterwards. The old Kumara man when eating witchetty at Undiara said – “Suppose me eat em some witchetty then might all witchetty die : then he went out again and got some witchetty – no die - & he carried alpita which he always sang when out making witchetty because it made witchetty jump up. Then the old man said “no good suppose we go on eat em”. Suppose we eat ‘em might sure be frightened and go

Page 148

[margin note] Unmatchera
along another country. The old man ‘sang’ them again then went out and saw the young idnima rising along the ground. and said very good I have seen them. Again he carried his yam stick and his alpita under his arm without which he could not make witich. All day long after eating then he cooked & eat them on the fire in his camp. In the morning he cooked more. Then again he made undattha quab (witich).

Lubras are not allowed to see the Atthithika (young grub). Then lubra is told that the id. comes along with the rain but the b.f. knows that it jumps up from the egg.

Unkia (Kaitish). inchulla (Unmatch)=nilkna (thief). Arunta.

In Unmatchera restrictions with regard to eating totem as in Kaitish (see later).

[margin note] Kaitish
[Totems & eating
When any animal is killed if a man of the totem be in camp and it be killed by Mulyanuka it is cooked by them and taken to the man of the totem who eats a little and then it is eaten up by the other. If it be killed by nakrakia it is taken to the Mulyanuka who cook it and take it to the man who eats a little and then all eat it. If I am an emu man and am out alone and see an Emu I do not kill it but if any of the Mulyanuka are with me then I kill it and hand it over to them. “Tom” is Quatcha & Purula. In camp water is given to him by “Lamelegs” who is Amborinia and if they are not then by anyone of the Mulyanuka. In the same way “Dick” an Erlia & Panunga is given Emu by the Umburnia etc. In the Kaitish all of the totems are divided up between the two halves of the tribe some in one some in another.

Page 150

[margin note] Terms of relationship betrothal hair girdle
[margin note] Unmatchera.
Unmatchera. Terms of relationship exactly same as in Arunta. The Ikuntera gives the man his lubra. Same ceremony of Tualcha mura as at A.S. painting the face of the children red. The girl when she grows up gives the young man his first hair girdle worn by Wurtja. Gives it to her ildulla who gives it to father.

♂Arunga Purula
♂Oknia Kumara ______________ ♂oknia
♀Mia Bultahra
/ /
/ /
*Ilpailurkna Purula ------------------- itia
♂allira Kumara ------------------------ ♀ allira Kumara

♂Gommonia Bulth_________mia Bulth.
♀Kumara \ /
/ \ /
/ \ /
♂Uknaria unk ------*- Ilpailurkna ♂Purula
Ungalla /
/ /
/ /
♀Bulth mia

June 27 Camp 33 B.K.

Unmatchera. (Ilpailurkna informant).
Initiation. Lartna = pulla. After circumcision which is performed Ikuntera (see p. 158) etc.
[margin note] Initiation Unmatchera p.158
The boy is told that the churinga is very good. that it must on no account be left about in the bush but that he must carry it & if he were to leave it about & loose it then some one would kill his mother. Nor is it to be shown to boys or else they will be blinded. He must always hide himself in the bush & if he chances to see lubra’s tracks must jump up over them or else lice will grow in his hair – jump up off their tracks. When he has recovered from the Pulla operation the okilia of the boy he is all right now we must cut him for if he grows too big it will be too hard to cut him. Then he is bought up by the Unbuniia and okilia who have had charge of

Page 152

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] initiation
him in the bush. At night time the Iniakura (father’s elder brothers) make quab undattha & also the okilia, the boy is brought from his camp to see these & then at daybreak the father (own oknia) makes a quab with a nurtunja : when he is shown this the okilia hold him by the arm and say that is your oknia’s nurtunja that it has made plenty of young men & that he must catch plenty of wallaby and kangaroo for his father. Then he embraces the nurtunja. The twigs are laid on the ground and a shield put on those & then the nurtunja [margin note] subincision
& then the Umburinia lies at the top & the boy on top of him. Then he is subincised by the Ikuntera. (The Idnimita use a nurtunja which in the alcheringa they got from the [margin note] this churinga is afterwards given back to the oknia
Chilperta men who left it behind when they performed a sacred ceremony at Ma-ilpunga). Then the father gives the boy a churinga and says that churinga your own alcheri churinga which had your Kur(i)nah. You must not go about the lubras camp when you carry it: if you do you will loose your churinga & your big brother will kill you. The ikuntera & okilia tell him to keep to the lubra when his ikuntera has given him : that he must not go & steal a lubra from another country. If he does then by & by blackfellows will come up & kill him & all about. All day he is to look after his own ikuntera. Unless he make the bullroarer sing another arakurta who lives in the sky will come down and carry him away. The noise of the churinga is called “Luringa”. If the arakurta hears churinga “roar” he says “That is all right”.1(This arakurta went up into the sky at a place called Urniarra: he had been cut by the Ullakuppera). The lubras think that this Twanyirika sits down at a special stone. The old men tell the boys that Twanyirika has put his penis into the eyes, nose, mouth & between the fingers & toes of the young man so as to frighten the boys who are also told when a big cloud comes up that is Twanyirika making a smoke.

Page 154

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Initiation p158?
Lubras think that the youth is walking along with Twanyirika. The old men say that T. can jump over a big flood but that a little creek in a gully stops him from crossing and that he hobbles along all day carrying one leg over his shoulder. Lubras think that T. is a “spirit” father who takes the arrakurta into the bush. Thinking when hears bullroarer that youth has speared T. and that latter cries out.

In the bush the boy gathers idniminta and takes it to old man who takes it to men’s camp. it is given to the women who are told that Twanyirika has been giving the boy Alpita. The id. is given to the mother of the boy. When the boy has recovered the lubras make a fire and put green bushes in it. Then the youth and his Umburnia imjipunia come up & the latter leads the former close to the fire. The lubras have gathered small yams which are close to the fire and the boy has bought euro with his which he has been caught in the bush. He is put on the fire & his own mother holds his arms while his elder sisters rub him down and then touch his mouth with the yams which release him from the ban of silence. His mother takes the inimitnia from his head & keeps it. Then women take the euro & the boy goes back & gives the yam to his umburnia – they are ekarinju to him. While the boy is in the bush the mother wears alpita in her hair behind the head if she has not got alpita she keeps fire burning all night. Both of them are to prevent the boy being bitten by a snake. After the rubbing ceremony the mother gives the alpita to the elder not to let it get burnt. If she has another son ‘cut’ she will get this alpita and use it again.

Page 156

[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Sub 144 138 140
Idnimita of Indiarra (further notes) The old Bent man said to the Kumara of Undiarra – you got no alpita. & he said yes me got no alpita. Then the old man went back to his camp and returned with alpita, alalkira & churinga which he gave to Kumara man but the latter had no churinga to give him in exchange. The old Bent man said you all day walk about & carry alpita & make intich. Before this the Indiara man been say How can I make id. jump up. Think I will get owl & get feathers & make alpita. Now he thought no I will catch mopoke & make alpita. Then he thought he would put undatha on idnimia leaves & make alpita. Then he said I don’t know what I will do & presently he said I will go back along a gum tree (E. terminalis) and try & make alpita out of its bark. Then he slept along his camp with his head on his hand. Then the old Bent man came up & hit him with his yam stick and he said Hallo what name me hear ‘em & then he looked and said hallo that one old man and he got up with his hand shading his eyes. The old man had put his yam stick behind his back so that the Indiarra man would not see what it was and he said Hallo perhaps that old man got my Churinga. Then that Indiarra man asked the old man what was his name and he said I am Ungalla & the Indiarra man said I am Kumara. Then the old man asked him if he had Alpita and he said no I have none. Then Untherkapuna went back along his camp and got his Churinga and came up holding it against his stomach and the Ungalla held his the same way. ^This Indiarra ^man gave the latter his Churinga & he gave him his Alpita & then they embraced one another. Unthukapunda said when you go out to make Id. you always take this alpita and make intichiuma. So all day he went out getting idinimita and brought it home and cooked it and then

Page 158

[margin note] Unmatchera
he made intich. with quab. Undath. and threw the undath in different directions so as to make the idminata spring up.
Ilpailurkua has been several times invited to go to Indiara by the representatives of the old Kumara man to have intichima matters further explained to him but unfortunately for us his official duties have hithertoo rendered it impossible for him to comply with this request
[margin note] Unmatchera initiation p154
Unmatchera initiation etc At the ceremony of Alkiri kiurima men of various relationships throw the boy up. He is not previously painted. The ikuntera strikes him with a stick while he is in the air and with clenched hand on chest (ilchiturma). He hits him with a stick if he has not been in the habit of giving his ikuntera parts of small wallabies etc when he catches them. His ikuntera may “take it out on him” at the initiating throwing up. He says “I’ll teach you to give me more meat.” [a. arrow linking previous section to lower section]
When the boy is given the Churinga at Pulla (The Churinga is one of his fathers and is given to him by the Okilia) He is told [b. arrow linking previous section to lower section]
[a.] He is told that he must not go along the lubras camp but must stay with the men and sleep at the Ungunja & not play about with the qui-ai.
[b.] that he must be very careful to jump over the lubras track if he should chance to see one for if he touched it with his foot the spirit ^(Kurinah) of the lubra’s louse might go along him and his head would get full of lice. He is cut by his ikuntera both at Pulla & Ariltha. Also If you dont jump over that track by and by you follow that one up & catch her and then she say what for you want to come & catch me and she goes back and tells his brother who will kill him dead.
[margin note] Quinia (darkness) totem See later Warramunga
In the Unmatchera there is a totem called Quinia = darkness. In the Alcheringa it was composed of Kumaras Purula. At the present day a spirit individual can change his class if he goes into

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[margin note] Unmatchera
the wrong woman as he sometimes does. E.G. Ilpailukna’s son is the reincarnation of an Emu
Panunga man in the Alcher. But he went into a Panunga woman and so is born Kumara. Men
[margin note] Spirit can change class but not totem
of his own totem take him the offering of his own totem.

June 28 Camp 33 B.K.

An 9 am 1605 an 9 pm
bar --- 28.290 bar ---
att --- 58 att ---
swing --- 50.5 swg ---

Unmatchera Parenthie legend
[margin note] Two parenthies
When the two parenthies (see p 112) had cut them he told the natives that they were not to say anything to the lubras about what had been done : dont tell them we cut you and they will think that you arose that way. After they had been cut the interintera said that they were like the parenthie now and the parenthie said that they were not to tell the lubras what had been done to them as it was “ churinga”. After the men had been cut the little brother Parenthie said shall we leave the lubras inter intera? No answer. Then he said you have cut the men why not make a hole in the lubras? no answer. Then the elder brother said yes we will cut then and so they made the opening. Though at first the big brother thought suppose I cut then they might die.
After they had done this two Parenthie began to go back but they lost themselves. The big brother sat down and the camped for the night. The big brother sat up while he slept but the ‘itia’ leand with his front legs up against the trunk of a tree & so slept. At day break they were awake and called the place Panda and said that they had come up from Antijena. They found their tracks

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[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Origin of Equina white ‘sandstone’ used for decoration
Okilia passed water along road & thus “equina” arose (whitish stone like that at ooramunia the place called Murra atnarulcka. They said let us camp here. The little brother remarking that “okilia” was too much old man. They called the place Unquirilitha. Then the little
[margin note] Two parenthies
brother as they went on made urine one way and the elder another way. – equina jumped up – called the spot Urubaluluka. Then they saw a big mob of wild dogs camped along a tree. Thilitia walked along on his toes the big brother followed behind and each of them killed a
[margin note] catching dogs
dog with a stick. They said let us first of all kill these two by & by we will chase the others. They chased them in opposite directions. The little brother ran up a tree which broke down. Okilia caught wild dogs & killed them. The little brother shall we disgut him here : the big brother say no we will carry him to the camp and take his guts out there. The two exchanged their wild dogs. They took their guts out and found that they stank.
Then a possum came up to the camp & growld[?] at them from a tree up which the itia climbed after him. He looked up and saw the opossum which micturated straight on the head as he looked up. The okilia told him to climb & kill him. The itia hit him and down he tumbled and fell on his face scratching him. Then they cooked and eat the ‘possum. In the morning they started off & saw a kangaroo which had been killed by the wild dogs. They took it and found a water hole with a green scum going on its surface. They drank here and camped. Cooked & eat the kangaroo. This water hole called illkalakullaka. The scum they swished on one side with their tails. The itia micturated along the road and more equina jumped up. The next night they had to camp without tucker. At day break they got up and heard wild dogs howling. They went to them the little one round about & the big one straight so as to drive

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[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Two parenthies
them towards where the itia was crouched down in the scrub. The little b. killed one and chased another. Okilia also killed one. The others went away and got down into a hole. The two came up and looked down the hole. The big brother said which way shall we take them out.
[margin note] Catching dogs in hole
Itia said dig this out with a yam stick. Okilia said no we will dig them up so he sent his tail down the hole and tore it open & then the itia pulled them out & killed them. The little brother said shall we take their guts out. Okilia said no take them along camp and take their guts out there & so they did. This place they called Chapa (tearing out place). They then went back to Undatcha where they found water & cooked them and eat them guts and all. Okilia say “I am tired now : I think you will ‘loose’ me this way. The little brother then again made equina as he travelled along. Itia went on a head the okilia following behind. They found as ilchiquana black below (varauses sp.)
[margin note] meet[?] an ilchiquarra
The okilia said why do you sit down altogether black. The Ilchiquarra went to one side and the big Parenthie to the other. Then the parenthie said to the Ilchiquarra – we start tomorrow morning. And they called this place ilchiquarra-piria. They camped at Ilqurtaponna. The okilia tried to walk but could not walk steadily. Then they went a little to the west. The okilia at first wanted to die at Illia-la-la-kullika but went on. His long tail dragged behind him and mad a big creek called Latinja. He stood up & made more equina. Then they got back to their own country. The itia said shall we lie down on our backs. No answer. Then shall we lie on our sides. Okilia said we will stand up. So they stood up facing towards the camp. Both stood with fore feet extended . A water hole between them and they both died. Two pillars of stone arose to mark the spot and on the top of each of

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[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] Two parenthies die. Stone column with hole on top in wh. are churinga
them is a hole where are the ^round^ churinga representing the eggs which they carried in a hole in their heads. Thuqalla echunpa jump up here. Women & men may all drink at this w.h. because the churinga were placed so that they could not be seen.
[margin note] Red ochre
Red ochre. ulpa. The old Intiana man micturated near to Intiana and this made a supply of this.
[margin note] Atcha (resin)
Unkurra (= Atch of Triodia sp) An old man named Unkarra came up from Kukaitcha out of the west. [a] Called that place Apmanapimja [a. circled and link to lower sentence]. He saw men of the Bean tree (atchuritcha) men performing & ^ [a.] Then he hid in a bush so as not to let them see him and saw that they had a big nurtinga in their camp: they slept, with the okmiabata near to the Nurtinga. Unkarra watched for the sunrise and made their stones hot in a fire. The men slept long for they had been singing all night. Then he put the big lump of Unkurra which he carried on the stones & such a smoke came[?] that all the Engurna men died and the Nurtinga stood up alone. The old man ran away frightened after growling at the Engurna men & asking what for they made Engurna all day. He dived into the ground at Alluwanja and came out at Artika. Here he saw a whirlwind which took him along into the sky at Unjăkăka. Then he walked along the sky and went back to his own camp at Ilkalatchilla. Here he died and changed into Porcupine grass Ani-itta. Here there is an Unkarra oknanikilla.
In the Alcheringa the Unkurra was always obtained from the Porcupine grass and was made in the form of a damper.

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[margin note] Unmatchera
Giving of food. Grass seed & bushy tuck out is given to ganmona by ikinitira meat by the ganmona to the ikinitira
[margin note] 2 Panangas 1 Appungerta man
At Arunbia three Yarunpa men two Appanunga (son) and an Appungerta (father) arose in the Alcheringa. The old appungerta man stayed at Arunbia – he was named – Illyaba while ^one of^ the Panunga man walked along to Akurpilla. Here he saw an old man an Appugerta who cracked a stick & made undattha. The Panunga man said hallo thats my son and said what are you looking out? Him said I am looking out for you. Then the Panunga man said when I go back to my father I shall go and look out lubras along in the Antigerra at Illūra. The old man then said to him do you want my Churinga & he answered no because your and my country are all the same. Then the Panunga man said I am going now will see you by & by. Then he went to Arunibia. The little brother when he got back asked him which way shall we walk. – The okilia said we will go and look out lubras. Then they walked and slept at Intakalla and saw Illūra (a clay pan). There they found a big camp of lubras of all classes who were Irriakurra. The two men put branches of Mulga in their belts. The lubras got up
[margin note] Panunga men meet lubras settle upon ‘straight’ marriage etc
and looked at them. They said we are Panunga which way straight lubra? One lubra said this one Purula this one straight. Then the lubras stood in a long line- one said this one is Umbitchana and he said that is my “Mia” another lubra said she is Ungalla and he said that is my itchella (unkulla). Another one said she was Umbitchana & he said that is my mia. The Blackfellows said tell me straight or I might go wrong. They “cut out” the Umbitchana & Purula & took them back to Arumbia leaving the others behind. They camped at Interkalla en route. They left the lubras at a water hole on the creek and then returned to their father’s camp. Then the old man

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[margin note] Unmatchera
[margin note] 2 Panungas 1 Appungerta man
the father said what shall we do now - we will go out & get wallaby. They went out and the old man walked so as to frighten the wallabies towards the sons who killed them. Then they came back to their own camp. The two Panunga left the old man and taking wallaby went to the lubras camp. The lubras meanwhile had been searching for manna on the
[margin note] Take wallaby to lubras’ camp
gum trees (manna = allakumbra) and some of this they gave to the two Panungas. next morning the two Pans. went out hunting wallaby while the old man stayed at home making undattha. The two Pans got plenty of wallaby & came back at sundown. In the morning the [margin note] Old Appungerta make quab.
old man said when you come back at sundown the old man said you come out to this fire I will make undattha out there. (W) The two Pan came back as directed: and the Okilia walked about while the Itia remained seated. The old man said this is my country. The Okilia called the itia and he came up & the itia took wallaby to the old man who made quab undatth & the two Pans wali’d round & round all the time. When the old man had done they placed their hands on the back of his head. The itia gave the old man all the wallaby and the okilia took the imrutnia from his head and placed it on his fathers shield. The itia had not as yet spoken but after the ceremony the father stroked his mouth with mulga leaves (aralkalillima). They sang all night making Engwurra. The going out of the Pans. & the return with the old Father making quab. & the itia siting down by the fire etc took place in the next two days. Walikutnunia & Aralkalillima. Again the two Pans. went to the lubra camp taking wallaby & receiving Manna. Then an old man inarlinga came up along the road.
[margin note] An old inarlinga comes up
There was more undatth. that night & Walikutnimma. The two Pans. again went after wallaby, itia sat down okilia was beckoned up. Then Walik. & arallkalillima. The old inarlinga

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[margin note] Unmatchera
came up & sat down on the top of a hill [....] the Antigerra. The two Pans. went to the lubra camp with wallaby & received manna. Saw more undattha at night. The itia said you & me walk and look out wallaby. Each of them had one spear & one boomerang. The old man stopped at the camp. The okilia said I will go along that hill (where the inarlinga ^was). The itia killed a wallaby and pulled it out of a hole with a stick. The okilia on the other side of the hill saw a wallaby & discovered the inarlinga. Hallo he said that is an Orruncha. The okilia wanted to kill the orruncha but his boomerang went round to the other side of the hill and killed the itia dead. The itia sang out when he was hit Hallo I’m dead. The okilia ran back to [margin note] Inarlinga rolls down the hill
his father. The Inarlinga thereupon rolled himself up into a ball and came tumbling down the hill right into the old mans camp. He had seen it coming & together with his son dived onto the ground leaving all their churinga behind. The old inarlinga sat down there until he died.

June 29 Camp 33. B.K.

an 9 am 1560 9 pm 1590
bar --- 28.335 --- 28.308
att --- 61 --- 65
swing --- 56 --- 51.5

[margin note] Kaitish
Fight in morning in natives camp hence no work done.
Unity journal etc.
Aftt. with Imbăkua (Quatcha. Kumar).
In the Alcheringa a man named Arininqa a Purula jumped up at a little water hole called Anira. At sunset he slept and when the sun arose he split into two one of whom was Purula & [margin note] Man splitting into two – Purula & Kumara
the other Kumara. At sunset the two joined into one again and went down into the rock hole. At daylight he came out & again split

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[margin note] Kaitish
[margin note] Man splitting into two. Purula & Kumara
into two. In the sunshine he grew from a little into a great blackfellow. In the early morning he was red but the sun made him turn black. These men arose first as men not as interintera. [margin note] Develope into 2 oknirabata
Then the two went up along a hill and stroked their whiskers. They were big oknirabata now.
[small sketch of two u shapes] The two men then went onto another hill and sat down with their back to front [small sketches of two u shapes overlapping and two men sitting ‘back to front’] Then they grew very big. Then they meditated as to where to go peering round in all directions. Then they went on to another hill and sat down in the same way and stroked their beards. Then they walked a little further & stayed a short time and then up another hill – a big hill. Here they tied up their heads with imnitnia – that hill = Kararinnia. Here there is a water hole (= aralchira) & 2 gum trees which represent the fur men. They sat down beside the W.H. Then two old men are reincarnated as the father of Imbākua & his son’s father. Here they heard a baby cry. Then they put barbs on their spear point (the barb hook = Kailara). The old Kumara man went straight up to where they heard the baby while the
[margin note] speared a lubra
Purula wen round about. They found the lubra & baby. The Purula went round & showed himself to the lubra who looked at him and was then speared by the Kumara. She was Purula & Anamaitcha (paternal sister). The baby was killed. Then they took the guts out of the lubra & sewed her body up with a stick just like they do a kangaroo & then they cooked and [margin note] cooked & eat lubra
eat her. When they had done this they sat down. Then they stroked their whiskers and a big [margin note] stroked beards - water flowed over country
rain came out and ran all over the country. First of all it was dark coloured & then it was red. They allowed the water to flow a long way and then they beckoned it back with their fingers. This was close up at sundown. When the sun arose they allowed the water to flow out again. They watched the water for along way into the scrub lest another man should come up.

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[margin note] Rain
[margin note] Kaitish
Then they sat down by a big billabong at Arumba and two men came out from their
whiskers*. Before they died they cut off their whiskers and from these clouds arose and went
[margin note] Two men came out from their whiskers
[margin note] Clouds arose out of their whiskers
into the sky and from the clouds came rain. The two old men made intich. all day long. The whiskers remained in the form of churinga on the top of the hill where they died in the
[margin note] rainbow out of whiskers
Alcheringa. The rainbow came out of the whiskers. -whiskers = arunta, rainbow = ankulia. The rainbow all day long wants to stop rain.
[small annotated sketch of shield] -bow -lightening
The shield on which the rainbow is painted is only shown to Kumarra & Purula men if shown to unakrakia stops rain coming.
Erlunda = Barneys’s father. Arumbiria jumped up late. Kalpara = itia of old Kumarra and.
6 Kumarra women jumped up where made ok. Barney is kumara. Uknana gives him water,
[margin note] Uknaria gives water to Kumarra of rain totem
[margin note] drinking water
that is his ikuntera. In his absence the Bulthara & in their absence the Appungerta. If took it himself would loose power of making intich & Bulth. & Appung. would bone him up.
[margin note] Stranger asks rain totem man to give him water
If a strange man comes to Anira he first of all asks Barney to give him water & B tells the Mulyanuka to do so. If he does not ask first he kills him.
*These two were Euro and they were the Alquatharra of the Quatcha men who will not kill euro – it is ekärinja to them. Quatcha men wear Euro teeth as a pendant on each side of the head.

June 29 Camp 33. B.K.
an 9 am 9 pm
bar --- ---
att --- ---
swing --- ---

[margin note] Kaitish
In the Alcheringa a little euro arose by & by a lubra of the Min iria (Molich hornid[?]) totem came up and gave it milk. The

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